Siva Sutra

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Svapna or Dream State and its sub-states. Dream universe is made of thought waves or Vikalpas. It is Abahya, meaning there is no exterior in this dream universe; it is all internal propagation of thought waves; there is no connection between the external world and the world of dreams; it is all confined to the mind of the dreamer. The first is Svapna-JAgrat , awake state in dream. This dream world is vivid. The second is Svapna-Svapna , Dream within a Dream. The third is Svapna-Susupti. It is Samgata , meaning that the dream events and objects put together well and connected with each other.

The fourth one is Svapna-Turya. In this state there is complete hold on the self-consciousness, self-awareness and self-knowledge so the dreamer knows he is dreaming. It is Susamhita , meaning that the dreamer is put together or integrated well. According to Yogis, all these four Svapna series comes under the term, Padastha meaning that he stands on his own feet--abides in his own Self in all these conditions. For the Jnani, these four states come under the term VyApti or pervasion, meaning the Jnani's experience is a pervasion of his being in the four dream states. The Susupti Deep Sleep state has four phases.

You go from Void to Waxing experience of object to Waning experience of object to going into a state of Bliss and the world of I-Consciousness of Siva. The first is Susupti-JAgrat , wakefulness in deep sleep. It is Udita , meaning risen, ascended, being above, tall, lofty. You have risen above the world of impressions and entered the world of negation of impressions.

You left the world of impressions and are going towards Siva. You have no thoughts, no impressions and enter Void Sunya. The second is Susupti-Svapna , dreaming in Deep Sleep. In this state you are somewhat conscious, travel in the world of subjective consciousness and gather impressions and awareness Objective experience which accumulate and become thicker and stronger; this state is known as Vipula meaning thick, abundant, numerous. Objective experience is waxing. Here the objective experience is waning; you are subdued and tranquil. This is Santa or peace. There is no agitation in the peaceful background state of subjective consciousness and awareness.

Here peace does not translate into subjective Bliss. The fourth is Susupti-Turya , the 4th state in Deep Sleep. You are aware of your subjective consciousness and remain in a state of Bliss and enter into a state of Samadhi Intense contemplation of God and identifying with Him. This state is called Suprasanna , meaning Grace, Blessedness, brightness and serenity. This Bliss, one experiences but is not aware of. Turya is above the state of PramAtri. PramAtri is agitation or activity in subject and object subjective consciousness and the object ; both are engaged in reciprocal activity.

This is like a preceptor immersed in teaching activity engages his mind and uses objects to explain and illustrate his talk. That is subject and object activation. That is PramAtri. When the same preceptor stays home, remains free and is not using objects, there is only subjective consciousness and no objects. This is Pramiti. Turya state is unanimated state of all energies. Worldly people have not experienced Turya apart from the three states of wakefulness, dream sleep and deep sleep.

Since they have not enjoyed it, they called it the 4th state. Turya surpasses the physical self and establishes one's own self. Turya is a state of equilibrium between individual consciousness and the universal Consciousness of Siva. There is no mind, no thought or thought waves; it is complete cessation of mind. The Yogi found the gap between two thoughts where in there is silence and the I-consciousness of Siva. Once it transcends this phase, there is advent of Unmani , which is a state when mind ceases to exist; in other words the manasness of the Manas or mind ceases to exist. Unmani is mandatory state for Yogi; no Unmani, no Yogi.

When Unmani state is attained, the Citta is free from the mind that keeps it attached to the world and floats freely in ether. Imagine the free-floating astronauts; the Yogis are "Ethernauts with no fear of cosmic radiation. The second is Turya-Svapna , Dream Sleep in Turya, whereby the Yogi crosses the Rubicon of limited knowledge to unlimited Knowledge and thus it is called Ananta unlimited. Turyatita is the ultima Thule of Human Experience, wherein there is seamless merger or union of individual consciousness and the I-consciousness of Siva.

This is the resolute and full realization fro the yogi. Once Turyatita is attained there is no more Yoga; the Sadhaka reached pinnacle, peak, apex, acme, summit, zenith; there is nothing left to climb. To this one, everything is Sivamayam; everything is Siva. Turyatitia pervades all states in the perfected Jnani. He who enjoys the three states is the master-hero of the senses. Being the enjoyer of the rapture of I-consciousness in the triad of waking, dreaming and deep sleep, he is verily the master of his senses. The one who enjoys the oneness of the three states, waking, dreaming and deep sleep in turiya becomes the master of all organic energies.

The triad eaten by a Lord Hero. In fourth state, Turya, the individual consciousness dissolves in I-Consciousness of Siva and the result is experience of the Bliss of Divine consciousness. The senses come under the control of Jnani. The senses transmute into the powers when the Jnani experiences the fourth state.

The Yogis who have not experienced Turya consciousness will not be able to acquire full control over the Indriyas. The groundswell of Yoga is Wonder. The stations and stages of yoga constitute a fascinating wonder. Jaideva Singh. The predominant sign of such a yogi is joy-filled amazement. The Yogic powers here in this state of being comprise indescribable astonishment wonder. Surprise-wonderment is the place of yoga. The stations and stages of Yoga constitute a fascinating wonder. It is a wonder for the Yogi to behold the expansion of the senses, transmutation into powers under the control of the I-Consciousness and expansion of experience of many objects.

The Yogi's experience transcends those obtained in Muladhara or Ajna Chakras. Kundalini Power. Thus the Yogi ascends to Sahasrara Chakra and beyond for his unique experience. Will Power of Yogi is Uma, Kumari. The will power of the Yogi who is in communion with Siva is Uma, who is Kumari. The power of the will is the playful uma.

His will is the energy of Lord Siva and it is called uma and kumari, or For such a yogi his will is one with the energy of Lord Siva, unobstructable, completely independent, always given to play. For such a Yogi, any desire is identical with the Supreme Energy of Lord Shiva and hence his desire cannot be checked by any power. Iccha Shakti is Uma, the Virgin. With regards to individual consciousness and Siva Consciousness, these conditions depict Monistic identity, Identity with a difference and dualistic difference respectively.

Uma is the consort of Siva. This Free Will called Kumari projects the universe and later absorbs it into Herself. All powers are deemed female with regards to Siva. There is non-difference between Siva and His powers and affirms SambhavopAya. Ku mari is Iccha Sakti and means destroyer of MAyA , which keeps our consciousness contracted and our body limited. Iccha Sakti will is the same as that of Siva Abedha as opposed to difference Bedha forced on us by Maya. There is Bhedam or difference between contracted human consciousness and Siva-Consciousness.

Kumari destroys Maya and liberates us so that the individual consciousness becomes identical with I-Consciousness of Siva; that is Abhedam, non-difference. We have to meditate on Sakti to go from Difference to Non-difference. We are dual with Siva in the phenomenal existence and become no-dual with Siva in liberation; that is Bhedam-Abhedam, difference-non-difference. This is the path of Sakti or SaktopAya. We have to move from Asuddha Vikalpa to Suddha Vikalpa. Mantra Sakti : Here the Cittam the mature mind in its perfection brings about meditation and reflection on the Highest Reality enshrined in the Mantra and identifies with the deity of the Mantra.

Mechanical repetition of Mantra has no value. Sakti is the essence or the soul of Mantra. Mantras are letters, syllables, phonemes Thus Mantra is the body and Sakti power of Sakti. These Saktis are called Matrika. A Guru is necessary for initiation into Mantra, induction of Caitanya Sakti or power of consciousness into the Mantra and instructions in Matrika.

Uma forsakes all attachments, engages in meditation and pines for union with Siva. The Yogi puts in the same effort by his will and desires for union with Siva. This is in accord with AnavopAya. This soul Purusa with Kancukas is the least spiritually developed one. This path involves Kriya action on the part of the striving soul KriyopAya. It is also called BhedopAya because the premise is based on the difference between Aham and Idam. Aham is the aspirant soul and subject; Idam is the object and the universe; thus, there is a duality. An experience of duality by an individual is a lower status in the spiritual advancement.

To attain monistic feeling of higher spirituality, one has to work to accomplish it: This yogic effort consists of Control of breathing and the organs of senses, contemplation, Mantra Japa, Sthana Prakalpana Contemplation on the form of Siva is lower form of Anavopaya; contemplation on the formless Siva is the higher form of Anavopaya. Sthana Prakalpana is to imagine the whole spectrum of Siva's Universe in any of its individual aspects in the duration of one breath.

One example is to think of the location of the sun at dawn, dusk, noon This is higher form. The lower form is to concentrate on the midpoint in the forehead Ajna Chakra , the pit of the throat Visuddha Chakra , and the heart Anahata Chakra in the body. These Chakras are the reference points for those who are familiar with Kundalini yoga. Kundalini Power Anavopaya demands support from mental and psychical props breathing control, contemplation etc. That point is the center.

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Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. Thought is a manifestation or creation of the mind citta , and citta is derived from the absolute consciousness of the Divine atma. Void is hierarchically above Unmana Sakti. It can be said, therefore, that thought has objectivity, and that its form is a type of a vibration. When the mental consciousness or the mind drops, the divine consciousness dawns. I would say his commentary is sometimes so in depth that it requires repeated reading. All things and all beings embody the same impalpable essence.

Dhyana: Contemplation on a lotus in your heart or the meaning of a Mantra like Soham, Hamsa and the like. His body is the universe. All observed phenomena outer or inner are like his own body. The observed has a structure 1. This entire perceived world is his own self, or His own body is just like an object to him. For such a Yogi, even his own body becomes an extraneous object or the totality of extraneous objects is constitute his own Universal Body.

All things the body. Whatever that is observed either inside or outside is his body. My body is It, That, He, and She.

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Sadasiva Tattva professes the same notion. In waking hours, the body Deha operates; in dream sleep, only the mind Dhi operates; in deep sleep, only the breath Prana operates and thus it is void or Sunya. In all these observed entities inside and outside and in all states of consciousness, the Yogi sees undifferentiated consciousness.

He sees unity in diversity. As the multi-colored peacock abides in the homogeneous plasma of the peacock's egg, diversity of this universe abides in the undifferentiated consciousness. By dissolving the mind in the Heart of Consciousness, there is perception of Void. When the mind is united to the core of consciousness, every observable phenomenon and even the void appear as a form of consciousness. When his thoughts are diverted to the center of God consciousness then he feels the existence of God consciousness in oneness in the objective world and in the world of negation.

By establishing one's mind in the heart-the Universal Consciousness-the whole world of perception appears as one's own nature. When the collective-observation-shock is in the heart, dream vision disappears. Hrdaya is literally heart; it is core, essence or center of Consciousness. It is bringing the mind to dwell in the heart of Consciousness. Once mind and Consciousness are united, there is an observance of Void or Singularity, where there is non-difference among all things.

Siva Sutra Pravesana: An Introduction - Paul E. Muller-Ortega - Google книги

Once the Will Power Iccha Sakti is deployed and developed, the body and the entire universe of objects appear as consciousness to the Yogi. If the human mind Citta dissolves in universal consciousness Cit , the yogi observes that the universe is an expression or projection of that Consciousness. Saktopaya is dissolution of individual consciousness in the universal consciousness; this union results in dissolution of difference between subject and object and object and object; all are one; there is universal homogeneity. In Sunya or Void , there is no awareness of object.

Void is hierarchically above Unmana Sakti. Unmana 1 is the stage when there is no sound, no motion, no change in Siva Tattva. Nirvana Sakti is Unmani. When Samani is disunited from Manas and devoid of all attachment to all worldly things, it becomes Unmani 1. Having reached Unmani, one does not return. Think of this: Unmani is Zero from which all numbers proceed; Unmani is Zero into which all numbers subside.

Below are the Saktis in descending order. Unmana is in Siva Tattva. Sunya or Void is above it. The one in whom is absent the power that keeps the Pasu or individual soul in bondage. Or Meditation on Siva Tattva guarantees freedom from the power of bondage of Pasu. Or by aiming at the pure element of Siva he possesses Siva's unlimited energy. Or By establishing uninterrupted awareness of Pure Supreme Nature, the energy of Shiva is experienced. From being aware of the pure essence comes the shakti of non-duality. Sadasiva Tattva is the beginning of the unfolding of the universe in the downstream cascade of Tattvas in Pravrtti..

He has no bonds, as Pasu has three Malams. When the soul ascends to attain oneness with Siva, Sadasiva Tattva is the penultimate way station before union with Siva-Sakti. Sadasiva Tattva is the giver of Grace to the returning or ascending pure souls and thus Urdhva Gamini propels the pure soul upwards to Unmani -complete liberation.

This is Nivrrti as opposed to Pravrrti. Knowledge of the Self is unwavering awareness. Unwavering awareness that I am Siva constitutes the knowledge of the Self. Any inference of such a yogi is knowledge of his own real self. For such a realized soul, any ordinary thought becomes the means of realizing one's own self. Deliberation-pondering is being-wisdom. The 16th verse teaches that the objective world is in essence Siva; the 17th verse teaches that the subject is also Siva.

This is to be realized not by Tarka or logical reasoning, not by Vikalpa or thought-construct, but by Vitarka or an awareness in which all Tarka has disappeared by an indomitable, irresistible conviction of the Self being Siva. Delight in Samadhi confers Bliss to the world. The delight that the Yogi feels in abiding in his nature as the knower in respect of both the subject and object in the world, is his delight of Samadhi. The joy of his mystical trance samadhi is bliss or the whole universe. His being in the ecstatic state of Samadhi bestows bliss and happiness to the whole humanity or the totality of enjoyment in the universe constitutes or comprises his ecstatic state of Samadhi.

World bliss is samadhi happiness. The yogi becomes aware of the bliss that pervades all the manifested worlds. Loka or the world consists of the perceiver subject and the perceived object. The Yogi enjoys the delight of continuous awareness of a perceiver or knower. It is knowing that the Self is the knower and the subject of every knowledge. Perceiving the external world is perceiving objects of non-self. Looking within is self-knowledge; it is experiencing the Bliss and the joy of I-consciousness. This bliss and joy radiate to every one around the Yogi. Union with the Will of Sakti creates Body.

By infusing his energy of will the embodiment of that which is willed occurs at once. By putting concentrating one's mind on Universal Energy, body internal or external, is formed by his mere will. In the abode of Shakti is creation of the body. Samadhi n previous verse involves control of breath. Ida is Lunar and cool ; Pingala is Solar and hot. In the waking hours, the Yogi prays to Siva to perceive desired objects. When he emerges out of Samadhi, he regains Prana and Apana and realizes his desired objects fulfilled by his union with Siva. By this union the Yogi gains supernormal powers.

This is where the individual ego is subsumed by the cosmic ego and thereby there is no I and Him; there is no duality. If there is duality, Samadhi and Oneness do not take place. The little individual ego gets absorbed and homogenized and finds oneness with all egos and Cosmic Ego; there is no differentiation between I, You and He. This is an essential prerequisite before Sahasrara Chakra can be awakened in the aspirant.

Yogi has the power of Synthesis, Analysis and Joining. The other supernormal powers of the Yogi are 1 the power of joining or putting together elements or parts in all existents i. By the greatness of this achievement of the energy of will the yogi can focus his awareness and heal the sick and suffering, separate elements from his body and be free from the limitations of space and time. Such a Yogi is capable of i helping humanity unbounded by space and time ii casting off his body for specified time periods, and iii manifesting his body at various places simultaneously, by remaining in God consciousness.

The collective abode of the elements is the universe, the elements separately are the shocks. Vasugupta talks about the supernatural attributes of perfected Yogi. Let me give you an example. Here the entities for union and separation are different. All this is Yogic Sadhana accomplishment.

Aphorisms of Siva: The Siva Sutra with Bhaskara`s Commentary the Varttika

The Yogi can go without food and water for a long time. He has control over them. He can bring together elements in his body to synthesize nutrients to sustain his body; that is synthetic power.

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He can visualize things removed in Time and Space. He can bring back to his memory and consciousness past events removed in Time and Space. Siddhas are the yogins who possess eight siddhis or supranormal powers. Siddhas have attained liberation jivanmukti while living.

His body is secure from Time or death; he can choose his death at will at a time and place of his choice. They are the gurus and spiritual preceptors. Note some texts do not mention Gharima or Kamarutattva. The Yogi obtains these powers by communion with Iccha Sakti of the Divine, also known as Spanda Sakti, which is the creative power if I-Consciousness necessary for unfolding of Tattvas. The Yogi's Yogic eyes open Unmesa giving him all these powers, when he is spiritually perfected.

The supernatural power of making one self heavy at will. Supernatural power to obtain everything. Capacity to accomplish anything desired. Supremacy or superiority considered as a super natural power. The supernatural power of subduing all to one's own will. Minor Siddhis some are common to major and minor siddhis 1. Death upon demand 9. Karmic dissolution by multiple births in multiple bodies in one lifetime. Knowledge of past, present and future. Suddhavidya confers mastery of the wheel of Saktis. Full acquisition of mastery over the collective whole of the Saktis through the appearance of Suddhavidya.

When this yogi does not desire limited powers and is eager to attain the knowledge he becomes the master of the universal wheel. When such a yogi abstains from such powers, he attains lordship over the wheel of Universal Energies through the rise of Pure knowledge. From the appearance of pure knowledge come the many Shaktis of the lord of the circle of the Shaktis. The Yogi merges his consciousness with Sakti to obtain Universal Consciousness, Suddhavidya appears and gives him the power of Siva in the form of mastery over the Wheel of energies.

Suddhavidya in this context is the Unmana Avastha state. The Yogi acquires universal Consciousness. The 21st Sutra describes the power of universal consciousness or cosmic consciousness acquired by the Yogi. After acquiring this power, the Yogi realizes the entire universe as his Self in one sweep, not in bits. In Sutra 14, it has been shown that the yogi feels his identity with every object.

The 21st Sutra says that when the Yogi acquires universal consciousness, his consciousness is of the form of Ahameva Sarvam i. By uniting with the Great lake, the infinite reservoir of Divine power, he has the experience of the Supreme I-Consciousness, which is the generative source VIrya of all Mantras.

By the attentive continuity of meditation on the great ocean of consciousness the power of supreme I is attained. By concentrating on the transcendent lake of female energy, mantra life is obtained. Great lake is euphemism for 'the Supreme Consciousness with Iccha Sakti which projects the universe from the most subtle to gross objects' -J. Khecari Chakra is the wheel of limited experiencer PramAta, the man contracted and limited in comparison to the I-Consciousness.

Gocari Chakra refers to the inner Organ Anatahkarana of man. Dikcari Chara refers to the outer senses which communicate with the outer world of man. BhUcari Chakra refers to external objects. Here is a descent and contraction of I-Consciousness to Man, his Inner Organ, his sense organs and the outer world of objects. Kha is Ether and thus Khecari the human consciousness moves in the sphere of Ether. Gocari indicates movement and is the seat of the senses. Dikcari denotes directions or space as the senses are exploring the world around them.

BhUcari refers to the objects in the outer world. Khecari Sakti abides in PramAtA or the subject who when pure is led to liberation and who, when impure, remains under the influence of MAyA. Mantras are syllables, phonemes, quasi-morpheme and its series, morphemes, single word, words, phrases, sentences, verses, and passages. Magical formula used to address god. Awareness of one's identity with God. The mind becomes Mantra. Mind is mantra 1.

Here i. Consciousness the mantra. Swami Shankarananda : II. Cittam is part of Antahkarana or the Inner Organ, which is a product of Supreme Consciousness as depicted below. Chittam is a chronicler and repository of mental impressions and experiences. It is said to be a seat of consciousness, sub-consciousness and superconsciousness.

Chittam is the corporeal equivalent of Cosmic Witness. Vasana means fragrance, that clings to the clothes; Vasanas are the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind, the present consciousness of past perceptions, and knowledge derived from memory. It is the fragrance left from the past life that clings on to our psyche in this birth. Samskaras are impression on the mind of acts done in a former existence. At present, we are made of Vasanas and Samskaras meaning that our present life and behavior are a continuum from the past life remaining true to our past-life behavior.

Our body, mind, soul and psyche follow the script written by Vasanas and Samskaras. Consider your DNA inherited from your parents; likewise you inherit your Vasanas, Samskaras and Gunas from your past life. In the dream sleep, Buddhi, Ego and Mind are in abeyance because there is no external world but Chittam is functional and draws images and experiences from its own memory bank; it is a subjective world; the senses do not perceive; the organs do not respond; Buddhi does not churn; that is dream.

Sleepwalking or somnambulism is a sign of CNS immaturity in children. Chittam is man in his essence. Chittam makes the Inner Man. It is said that one should keep one's Chittam squeaky clean. Chittam is the radiating light of the soul of man. Chittam is Sum of man. You are what Chittam is. When you see an apple, your Inner Organ Chittam has to morph itself to the shape, size, color, odor, taste You see an apple; you your Chittam become an apple; you hear music, you become the music.

All that happens in your Chittam.

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Chittam is the seat of deep contemplation. Whatever is contemplated in depth in Chittam, that it becomes ; that a man becomes. Chittam becomes the repository of Sattva, Rajas and or Tamas in one mode or any of its combinations, one becoming more dominant than others. Chittam is a sage, a warrior, a killer If Chittam becomes the repository of malignant behavior such as murder, extreme greed etc, they leave a permanent imprint and never leave a person.

Jan 18, Sattva Virtue is in the dominant mode in the first five people; Tamas or darkness is in the dominant mode in the last two persons. If you don't give in to the onslaught of distracting thoughts and keep Siva constantly in your Chittam, Sivam you become.

Thence all your actions are His. Chittam is Sukshma Sarira or subtle body. It is said that Chittam is part of Prakrti Tattva Bhagavan Krishna tells Arjuna in Bhagavadgita:. Saiva Siddhantist says, soul is the ever-awake knowing entity in wakefulness, deep sleep and dream sleep. The sense organs receive their respective stimuli eyes perceive color and form, ears receive sound. Perception received by the inner organ reaches the soul, as the wave rolls to the shore. This emanation is called Vrttis or ripples. Perceptions are compared to the waves reaching the Self.

Thus the waves travel to and from the Witness. Chitta obtains knowledge from Buddhi and keeps it in storage. Apohana or forgetting is to move the knowledge to the back burner from the front of consciousness. It is not really forgetting; it is in storage. Smrti or remembering or recollection is to move the knowledge from the back to the front. Thus Chitta is the shuttle moving memory from the forefront to the back and vice versa. In practical sense, Apohana is storage and Smrti is recollection.

More on Apohana and Smrti. Antahkarana is the inner organ or the repository of Manas, Buddhi and Chitta. Chitta is a shuttle and moves knowledge back and forth from the front burner of consciousness or Buddhi to back burner and vice versa. When knowledge shuttles via the shuttle-express Chitta to the front of consciousness, you call it Smrti or remembrance; when knowledge is put in storage and not remembered, it is called Apohana loss or forgetting ; but it is available upon demand.

Impressions; analytical interpretation; and storage and recall are the respective functions of Manas, Buddhi and Chitta, which work like gears in the car; when one gear is on, the other two gears are disabled. Mind serves as the blackboard whereon the sense organs register their impressions, which are converted as concepts by the mind and presented to Buddhi, which rejects most of them and keeps some as nuggets of knowledge. Buddhi-Chitta keeps moving the knowledge back and forth between the front and back of the consciousness as Smrti and Apohana with the help of Chitta.

Remember that Chitta, Buddhi, Ego, Mind are one entity with different functions Functional Polymorphism ; thus the name is according to its function. Father is a son, a husband, an uncle, a father-in-law He is one person; his functions are according to his title; he cannot mix his roles; when he plays one role, the other roles are switched off.

Antakarana Inner Organ as depicted below is operational in two modes: External knowledge Acquisition Abhijna and internal Self-Knowledge Pratyabhijna acquisition. In Abhijna knowledge acquisition, knowledge proceeds from the gross to the subtle, from the sense organs to Chitta via Mind, Ego, and Buddhi. Sense organs report to Mind which reports to Ahamkara, which reports to Buddhi, which reports to Chitta. Mind and others are matter, while Witness is Spirit. We are moving from matter to Spirit. In this centripetal movement, the perfected one realizes that he the individual self is one with the Witness or Self.

That Knowledge is Pratyabhijna Spontaneous Recognition. These are aids or way stations. Each entity churns and propels knowledge from one to the next. This churning is called Vritti. Once all entities have performed their functions, they undergo autolysis, self-destruction, immolation, a sort of psychic apoptosis programmed death.

By the way, these four entities are functional and not anatomical entities. You cannot have matter enter the realm of Spirit. The matter has to die; Mind has to die; Ego has to die; Buddhi has to die. The flesh dies and Spirit rises. Chitta has the remembrance power smrti. All Vrittis dissolve and matter is reabsorbed by Kundali as the Kundalini Sakti rises through the Chakras. This is the power needed for the Yogis to dissolve in the Witness and become one with It.

As Sakti moves from one matter to the next to go to Spirit, each encounter with matter evokes a response, 'Neti Neti, Not this, Not this. This is It. In Pratyabhijna mode, it turns itself inward and obtains Self-Knowledge. Abhijna is outbound, while Pratyabhijna is inbound. I am that Siva. It is realization of the ever-present Reality. It is finding Anuttara, the One not having a superior or the Ultimate Reality. Abhijna is to know external objects; Pratyabhijna is to know oneself as the Self, Witness or the Universal soul.

You are in spiritual search; your Guru says what you are searching is you; you and the object of your search are one; you and Self are one; Individual self and the Universal Self are one; You and Siva are one. One's true self is nothing but Siva. What is the purpose of all this discussion? It is all about meditation. It is becoming one with the object of your meditation. Chitta dissolves in the Self, Witness or I-Consciousness. This is essential for proper meditation. This sequential process has four parts to it: meditation by the mind, chanting of mantra by Buddhi, contemplation by Chitta, eventual dissolution in the Self.

It goes from thought-initiation to application to contemplation to dissolution. Chitta keeps you in the 'groove'. You need Chitta to keep meditation, concentration and contemplation in sync. Mind is a mechanical meditator; Buddhi is a fickle meditator; Chitta is a serene meditator. Your aim is to graduate to and dissolve in Chitta meditation and the self.

Mind meditation and Buddhi meditation are out-bound meaning the thoughts are out-bound in the world of happenings; you are in the world of Nama and Rupa, names and forms. Chitta meditation is inbound in the sense it is in step with the Atman, the Inner Soul, the Witness.

At this juncture the Chitta goes into Smrti mode remembrance and engages in deep contemplation. For successful Mantra Meditation , an aspirant must have the following qualities. Mind must be brought under control and trained not to chase after sense-objects under the false belief that they provide happiness.

One must strive to prevent the sense organs from exploring the world of sense objects and impinging on the mind with sensual experiences. Mind is trained to forget the sense enjoyments of the past and desist from fancied sensual imageries. One should train oneself not to be disturbed and distracted by frustrations of daily living. Notes from Jaideva Singh -- Siva Sutras, page --with my input. Citta is consciousness that ponders over the Highest Reality. See the Diagram: Citta the individual consciousness communes with the I-Consciousness, which Singh says has the characteristics of Prasada, Pranava and Mantra.

Manana is contemplation on I-Consciousness and TrAna is protection from rebirth. Thus Mantra is contemplation to sever transmigration of the soul. The contemplating mind, the deity and the Mantra become one entity. Sakti is the soul of Mantras. Citta is not mere mind but shows hunger for communion with the I-Consciousness of Siva. See below the 31 Tattvas from Earth to Maya excluding the first five Tattvas. SAUH Mantra. Siva 1 , Sakti 2. What is left is Visarga 'h' : ; the upper dot is Siva and the lower dot is Sakti. Mantra and I-consciousness of Siva are one and thus pervasion into Mantra is pervasion into I-Consciousness.

Pranava is mystic syllable. Mantra protects the chanter from rebirth. Effort is effective. Krishnaraj Zealous and spontaneous close application is effective in fulfillment. For such a yogi pauseless effort brings about his attainment of God consciousness. The cause of attaining this Mantra is one's own effort. Endeavour the method. The secret of Mantra is Being Siva with the body of knowledge. The luminous being of the perfect I-consciousness inherent in the multitude of words whose essence consists in the knowledge of the highest non-dualism is the secret of Mantra. The secret of Mantra is Siva with the body of knowledge.

In other words, the secret of Mantra lies in the effulgent I-consciousness of Siva. Mantra is the sound-body of a god; thus the words in the Mantra constitute the body of God. The secret essence of mantra is establishment in the body of the knowledge of oneness. The state of totality of knowledge is the secret of Mantra. The science-body-being the secret of mantra. Mantra is the sound-body of a god; Yantra depicts the sound-body in a diagram. Sanskrit letters are strung together like a wheel called Matrika chakra.

The first letter is 'a' and the last letter is h; 'a' is dynamic Siva in starting creation and 'h' is resting Siva in that creation has come to a standstill. The first letter and the last letter encompass all the letters between them. Letters 'a' and 'ha' are combined with a terminal 'm' resulting in 'Aham', which is the Mantra of Siva. All the vowels abide in Siva; all the consonants from ka to sa abide in Sakti and thus Her Mantra is Ksa.

Mantras are solar Saura and masculine; lunar Vidya, Saumya and feminine,;and neuter.

The Shiva Sutras

Sa Sah is Sakti and Ha is Siva. Hamsah is the union of male and female and the universe is Hamsah, according to Woodroffe. Anataratma, Guru, Hamsah and Parama Siva are all the same. Parama Siva is seated on Hamsa Pita, which is Mantramaya. The Guru-Siva is in the white Lotus of a thousand petals--Sahasrara Chakra, within which is a triangle enclosing two Bindus making the Visarga.

There in the empty void is Parama Siva. Bindu is the circle O, the void is the Brahmapada or space within Bindu. Tirumular says that AUM, though a three-letter word, is one-letter Mantra. The west says that normal breathing is an unconscious act, while conscious breathing of inspiration and expiration becomes an efficacious Mantra Hamsah. As you are breathing this chantless Soham in and out, you are identifying your individual self with the Great Self of the Supreme Being.

Every breath and the Mantra that you take pervades the whole universe of your body. This life giving force or Mantra has the Great Self as the basis. Every time you chant a Mantra, it leads the individual soul to the Great Soul-- the Source, the Essence. We do not consider a genuine check or bill as mere paper; it has the value and the beneficiary's name written on the face of the check. In like manner Mantras are not mere letters, syllables and words.

By dedicated chanting and meditation one can awaken the Mantra Caitanya, the consciousness in a Mantra. That awakening gives Sadhaka Mantra Siddhi which imbibes the powers and goodness of the presiding deity of the specific Mantra. Now there is a concordance between Mantra Caitanya and Sadhaka's consciousness, resulting in transfer of the power of Mantra to the Sadhaka.

Shiva Sutras by Vasu Gupta*

This transfer of power is also seen in Guru-Sisya tutelage. Anavopaya , S. Saktopaya , and S. Swami Vishnu Devananda says that there are six criteria characteristic of a Mantra, slightly modified by the author. It was originally revealed to a Seer, Sage or Rishi who has attained Siddhi. It has a presiding deity. It has a specific meter. It has a Bija, seed or essence as its hypostasis. It carries sakti or power. It is like a jewel box whose lock has to be opened by the aspirant by prolonged repetition so that the aspirant receives self realization and vision of the Ishta Devata.

Examples of Phonemes are hrim, hram, and hrum ending in 'm' or 'n' , which can be intonated as long as one's breath can sustain it. Terminal M is Chandrabindu Moon-Dot. Sakti is the causal body of the subtle and gross bodies of all living beings. Another interpretation of HRIM. HA, Ra, I, Ma. Take the letter Ka. A vowel is interminable and so a terminator M Chandrabindu is added; thus Ka becomes Kam. The M sound vibrates intranasally. Here is the anatomy of Aum with M terminator. Womb-induced Mahamaya opening of the mind in a Yogi is common ignorance as seen in a dream.

Awakening of Supernormal abilities of Yogi is common knowledge like a dream and a play of Mahamaya. This is merely common knowledge --limited, inferior, impure knowledge. This is mere dream--confusion full of strange fancies based on a sense of difference. When a yogi's mind is satisfied with the expansive body of illusion then he falls in the world of differentiated perceptions and his knowledge of being is just like that of ordinary living beings.

When a yogi's mind remains satisfied in cosmic powers, his Samadhi is as good as ordinary dreaming state. In the womb state of consciousness expansion the inferior science of the dream state. Garbha is womb; here it refers to Mahamaya, the Great Maya or the womb of the universe or Primal ignorance. The Yogi's mental eyes open, when his individual consciousness merges with the I-Consciousness.

At that time, the Yogi gets expansion of the mind and experiences some supernormal powers as follows. He sees light in Bhrumadya -- between the eyebrows in the third eye. He hears NAda, the primal unstruck sounds; he sees many different forms even in the darkness; he feels many tastes on the tongue without food in the mouth. All these paranormal experiences are the new skills that the Yogi acquires but are an indication that the Yogi is still anchored to his body; these phenomena are impediments to spiritual progress.

They are the play acts of Mahamaya and are limited impure knowledge of the Yogi; it is like a dream.. Superior knowledge is Spiritual knowledge. With the awakening of Knowledge, there is a spontaneous attainment of Ethereal Siva Consciousness of the state of Siva. On the emergence of spontaneous Supreme Knowledge, occurs that state of movement in the vast unlimited expanse of consciousness which is Siva's state i. The pure knowledge of God consciousness effortlessly rises and this state of Siva is realized as one with the state of Khecari..

In the arising of vidya, spontaneously, one may move in the void, like Shiva. Kha is Ether or Space, which is a symbol of consciousness. The town is called Chidambaram. Likewise Khecari is Ether of consciousness. There is Khecari Mudra that refers to the state of universal consciousness, that is Siva. Khecari Mudra. The accomplished ones feel the flow of Amrit Nectar or ambrosia from the Bindu center at the back of the head corresponding to the tuft of the priests or the posterior fontanel which is barely open in infants and closed in adults.

Inside Bindu, Moon secretes Amrta or nectar. Between Bindu and Vishuddha Chakra, there is a repository for the nectar in the vicinity of nasopharynx. This nectar should not be mistaken for postnasal drip. This reservoir, Lalana Chakra or Talumula is stimulated by the long tongue Khechari Mudra that folds back into the nasopharnx and can occlude the Ida and Pingala Nadis posterior Choanae-opening in the back of the notrils.

The stimulation helps the Lalana Chakra empty the nectar into the Vishuddha Chakra, which processes the nectar and separates the pure form from the poison. The pure form promotes health, longevity, and regeneration of the body. Vishuddha Chakra neutralizes the poison. Khechari Mudra involves folding back of the tongue released from its anterior anchor by cutting the frenulum at the bottom of the tongue and pulling the tongue over many months to elongate it so that it can fold back and reach the openings at the back of the nose.

This Mudra helps the tongue taste the nectar from the Bindu Visarga and Lalana reservoir. Yogis say that they can live on air and nectar. Guru is the means. The Guru who has attained Self-Realization can alone help the aspirant in acquiring it. The master guru is the means 6. For such attainment, the means is the Master, the Guru. By means of the guru. You are in spiritual search; your Guru says what you are searching is you ; you and the object of your search are one; you and Self are one; Individual self and the Universal Self are one; You and Siva are one.

Guru : Ignorance is the mire of humanity; the one who rescues us from Avidya or Ignorance is Gu ru. Gu is Ignorance and Ru is light, the light that removes the darkness of ignorance. The medium of removal is Supreme Spiritual knowledge; the mediator is the Guru. He sheds light where there is darkness. Since Guru is the purveyor of spiritual knowledge and the dispeller of spiritual darkness, he is second only to Brahman. There are variations in the interpretation of Guru. Enlightening knowledge of the wheel of letters. From the pleased Guru accrues enlightenment regarding the group of letters.

The disciple attains the knowledge of the wheel of the hidden mother Matrikacakra 7. When the master is pleased, the disciple attains the knowledge of the wheel of Universal Mother. Awakened knowledge is the circle of the letters of the alphabet. All these vowels proceed from Siva. The consonants proceed from Visarga of Siva.

Mantras lacking initial letter a and the final letter ma aham are like autumnal clouds without rain useless. Antahstha Inner abidance letters ya ra la va is a term applied to the semivowels , as standing between the consonants and vowels. Sa is Amrta and is concerned with manifestation of the universe. Ha is visarga Sakti of Siva and causes vibration inside every creature. Body is oblation. Of such a person the body becomes an oblation to be offered in the fire of the highest consciousness.

The establishment of I consciousness on the body becomes an offering in the fire of God consciousness. For such attainment a yogi has to offer all his three bodies of wakefulness, dreaming and dreamlessness as oblations into the fire of Universal God Consciousness. The body is the sacrificial ladle. The body consisting of five elements, senses, Tattvas, and the Antahkarana is offered in the fire of Consciousness. It means that the aspirant has established in his mind that the consciousness is the Self and not the body. Krishna Bhagavan in Bhagavadgita states, 4. Knowledge is food.

The limited vitiated knowledge which is the cause of bondage is the food to be devoured. In the application of quantum theory to the macroworld and in the neu- ropsychological explorations of the brain, one cannot any longer ignore the question of the observer e. Kak, a, b, a, b, c. The notion that the mind emerges somehow out of the complexity of the connections inside the brain is too simplistic to be taken seriously.

If mind emerges from matter, how does it obtain autonomy? If the world is governed by laws then how do we have free will? If our autonomy free will is an epiphenomenon then are we walking shadows? Should one consider consciousness to be the ground-stuff of reality? If that is so then what is the connection between consciousness and the physical world?

These are just the questions that we come across repeatedly in the Indian traditions. Is there something to be learnt from the insights of this tradition? According to legend, Vasugupta c. It is due to a very clear exposition of the issues the Kashmir Shaivism has come to be quite influential in contemporary scholarship. The 78 number itself has a very important significance in the Vedic system of knowledge may be seen elsewhere e. Kak , c.

The commentary pro- vided in this paper is not based on the commentatorial tradition from within Kashmir Shaivism see e. I present my translation, as well as my commentary, in as modern terms as possible. Owing to this our phenomenal knowledge can only be in terms of the associations of the outer world. But the associations in themselves need something to bind them together. It is matrika that makes it possible for us to understand words or symbols strung together as language.

Lacking matrika, computers cannot understand language or pictures. Universal consciousness, as a unity, is called Shiva or Bhairava. Shiva makes it possible for the material associations of the physical world to have meaning. But the domain of the union of Shiva and the phenomenal world is puzzling and astonishing 1. This is a restatement of a metaphor that goes back to the Rigveda where the mind is seen as two birds are sitting on a tree where one of them eats the sweet fruit and the other looks on with- out eating RV 1.

There is only one bird; the other is just the image of the first energized by the fruit! There is a paradox here which is left unresolved. Another metaphor that has been used elsewhere is that of the sun of consciousness illuminating the associations in the mind. Mantra leads to the knowledge of the reality that lies beyond material associations. Consider sound made meaningful in terms of strings that, as 1 This is the binding problem of neuroscience to which no solution, within. The individual then gets transformed into a state where knowledge is his food.

One is supposed to take oneself as an outsider. By separating the senses from the source of consciousness, one is able to reach to the heart of the self. For earlier translations see Jaideva Singh and Dyczkowski Note that Jaideva Singh has 77 sutras whereas Dyczkowski has 79; for the reason why the canonical text is likely to have had 78 sutras see Kak Universal consciousness 1.

The emergence of innate knowledge 2. But later texts speak of important details in the process of cognition. I hope that others will ex- amine other classics in this tradition e. The Sanskritists who have worked on Indian theories of con- sciousness have been ignorant of the important insights of modern physics relating to the process of observation. The argument that one need not know contemporary insights since they were unknown when the old texts were written is just plain wrong. But do we need to go beyond even this?

Could the process of meditation on the nature of consciousness have led to insights that remain beyond the pale of our current understanding of the nature of reality? Kashmir Shaivism deals with concepts that also have a bearing on questions such as: How do the senses emerge in the emergence of the mind? Could there be more senses than we possess? The whole mythology of Shiva e. Kramrisch, is a retelling of the astonishing insights of the science of consciousness.

References Abhinavagupta, With the Commentary Viveka of Jayaratha, R. Dwivedi and N. Rastogi eds. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi. Abhinavagupta, A Trident of Wisdom. Dyczkowski, M. The Doctrine of Vibration. Feuerstein, G. In Search of the Cradle of Civilization. Quest Books, Wheaton, IL. Kak, S. Reflections in clouded mirrors: selfhood in an- imals and machines. The Astronomical Code of the R. Aditya, New Delhi. Quantum neural computing.

Advances in Imag- ing and Electron Physics, vol 94, The three languages of the brain: quantum, reorganizational, and associative. The astronomy of the age of geometric altars. Information, physics, and computation. Foun- dations of Physics, 26, Speed of computation and simulation.