Children are at the heart of everything we do. Childhood is filled with special moments every day and we design comfortable, quality clothes and accessories for memories in the making. Across all of our brands, we aim to make shopping and getting dressed easy and fun. Our goal is to be a retailer with the ability to see opportunity on the horizon and have a clear path for capitalizing on it. To do so, we are moving faster than ever before, employing more technology and concentrating our resources on those elements most important to our core customers.
To become a respectable company in the world by offering high quality clothing and handbag. To make unique sports cars that represent the finest in Italian design and craftsmanship , both on the track and on the road. To help our clients create such high levels of economic value that together we set new standards of excellence in our respective industries. Bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world. To attract and attain customers with high-valued products and services and the most satisfying ownership experience in America.
thebestdiscountsdaily.com/zithromax-azitromicina-precio-envo-a-espaa.php Offering all women and men worldwide the best of cosmetics innovation in terms of quality, efficacy and safety. To facilitate the financial security of its members, associates, and their families through provision of a full range of highly competitive financial products and services ; in so doing, USAA seeks to be the provider of choice for the military community. Our success has been achieved through creativity, commitment and the ability to generate enthusiasm. The wishes and emotions of our customers are the guiding principles behind our every action.
To be the Ultimate House of Luxury , defining style and creating desire, now and forever. Besides integrity, sustainability and mutual appreciation, our mission statement is the basis for all our business activities. It underscores our shared philosophy and is measure for dealing with each other — with the worldwide employees, business partners and customers. Furthermore it lays the foundation for a sustainable and successful business development.
As a result, we are committed to not only minimizing our impacts as a business but also using our voice and actions to positively affect communities and protect the planet. Maintaining a global viewpoint, we are dedicated to supplying products of the highest quality , yet at a reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction. Invent the next industrial era, to build, move, power and cure the world.
We strive to be the global leader in the sporting goods industry with brands built on a passion for sports and a sporting lifestyle. Uber is evolving the way the world moves. By seamlessly connecting riders to drivers through our apps, we make cities more accessible, opening up more possibilities for riders and more business for drivers.
Our goal when we created Tesla a decade ago was the same as it is today: to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport by bringing compelling mass market electric cars to market as soon as possible. To deliver information on the people, ideas and technologies changing the world to our community of affluent business decision makers. To help humanity thrive by enabling all teams to work together effortlessly.
To enhance society by creating , collecting and distributing high-quality news and information. To enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential. Shape the future of the Internet by creating unprecedented value and opportunity for our customers, employees, investors, and ecosystem partners. To be the catalyst in communities of customers, contributors, and partners creating better technology the open source way.
To move the web forward and give web designers and developers the best tools and services in the world. Apple designs Macs , the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store , and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad. Becoming the best global entertainment distribution service.
Licensing entertainment content around the world. Creating markets that are accessible to film makers. Helping content creators around the world to find a global audience. The mission of Dropbox is to simplify life for people around the world. For so long, people thought Airbnb was about renting houses.
You see, a house is just a space, but a home is where you belong. And what makes this global community so special is that for the very first time, you can belong anywhere. That is the idea at the core of our company: belonging. We have one mission : To empower you to make the most of your money, so you can live better. Over 23 years later, our devotion to seeking out the very best ingredients we can— raised with respect for animals, farmers, and the environment —remains at the core of our commitment to Food With Integrity.
To make the world Inbound. We want to transform how organizations attract, engage and delight their customers.
Our mission is to reconnect people through transportation and bring communities together. We believe in quality craftsmanship without the gimmicks. We work with the best to get the best. And then we sell the best, for exactly the price it should cost. We support American manufacturing. All of our mattresses are designed and crafted in the U.
We provide these with a dedication to the highest quality of customer satisfaction delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, fun, individual pride, and company spirit. Our mission statement is simple, yet the foundation of everything we do here at Virgin Atlantic Airways… to embrace the human spirit and let it fly. At HP, our mission is to deliver seamless, secure, context-aware experiences for a connected world. Provide our customers with the next generation of productivity gains and customer experience innovation through our deep knowledge of the changing global consumer and technology.
We deliver innovative technology and services that make businesses better through a powerful combination of customer knowledge, inspired thinking and attentive associates. In an ever-changing world Systemax continually evolves to meet and exceed market demands; With a smile. We understand our suppliers and customers and build long term relationships based on trust, integrity and the relentless pursuit of excellence.
Imation will: Utilize customer insights to build a world-class portfolio of quality digital storage products, audio and video electronics, and accessories. Extend our category leadership in key markets through our powerful global distribution network. Focus our resources on profitable growth areas. Increase the value of our brands and demonstrate return on marketing investments.
Maintain an uncompromising commitment to strong execution. Lead with the highest ethical standards , demonstrating good citizenship in all we do. We over engineer each product to dominate its respective market and perform flawlessly in the field. We are committed to the business principle of incorporating quality assurance functions into our daily activities in the distribution, movement, sale, assembly and rebuilding of Fuser Assembly, formatter boards, printing heads and other spare parts. Our mission is to provide cost-effective products with reliable quality, quick lead-time and good after-sale service to our customers.
With commitment to price and quality, our skilled engineers are engaged in advancing down cost solution and the technicians make full inspection on all our products before shipment. Founded in , Apple is a technology company that is recognized worldwide for its innovative work in Mac personal computers ; the iOS and OS X systems software ; the iPod digital music players and mobile phones. The company has a global market that includes individuals, businesses, and governments. Concurrent Computer Corporation is a technology company that provides software and hardware for companies in the media industry.
Cray Inc. Omnicell, Inc. Founded in the early s, Silicon Graphics International Corp is a technology company specializing in the manufacture of high performance supercomputers and sytems that are used by governments, banks, movie makers and various other industries globally. Super Micro Computer, Inc. XRS Corporation was founded in and is a technology company specializing in creating technologies that make it easy to effectively manage the North American trucking business. Our mission is to be the trusted technology and capacity provider of the global logic IC industry for years to come.
To offer strategic independence to our partners worldwide as a profitable and viable broad-range semiconductor supplier. Becoming the leading designer and integrator of innovative, tailored technology solutions that empower people to push the boundaries of what is possible. Our mission is to relentlessly strive to provide IC Solutions to meet the ever changing demands of Smart Entertainment.
The mission of Amkor Technology is to be the trusted global provider of reliable assembly and test manufacturing services and innovative solutions to semiconductor and microelectronics companies using advanced technology developed through close collaboration with our customers and other supply chain partners. Our mission is to invest in companies that provide a window on technologies that will push the semiconductor, display, solar PV, and related industries beyond the cutting edge. We are committed to comply with international safety, environment and quality standards at all times.
With our wide range of technologies and services, we maximize value and minimize risk for our customers and partners. By integrating technologies and expertise across the solar value chain, we deliver more reliable, dependable, and cost-effective solutions for our customers. FormFactor views a successful business as not just achieving financial results, but also being a good corporate citizen.
We hold ourselves accountable for our ethical, social and environmental impact around the world. At GSI Technology, we focus on providing the best value combination of power, speed, density, quality, reliability and delivery in the world. Our mission is to create semiconductor solutions that enable our customers to develop energy-efficient products thus reducing the need for fuel and therefore reducing harmful emissions.
Our mission is to be the best value-added die distributor in the world. Committing our focus on customer needs and demands, representing our suppliers with honesty and integrity. Our mission is to enable the success of our customers through highly differentiated IC solutions that reduces cost, noise, sizem weight and power and increase IP protection, performance, manufacturability and reliability.
Be the preferred global supplier of high technology, consumable materials for thin film deposition while achieving our strategic and financial goals. We will earn recognition and respect for excellence in providing:. Our customers with a quality offering of outstanding value, exemplifying technological and commercial excellence, characterized by innovative products that meet and exceed expectations, using high quality supply chain management systems, are delivered on time, and are supported by courteous friendly, satisfying service plus an ongoing commitment to continuous improvement;.
Our people with challenging, rewarding, enjoyable work experiences, in a safe, healthy environment, where honesty, fair treatment, open communication and cooperative accomplishment are the norm and each person is encouraged and enabled to understand the status of the business and allowed to maximize his or her contribution to and reward from it;. Our mission is to provide Semiconductor Manufacturing Companies in the Southwest United States with state-of-the-art mechanical tools for back-end Assembly and Test while providing a quality alternative to OEM suppliers.
It is the mission of TCG, Inc. Our mission statement is to provide our customers with high quality products and exceptional levels of service. Provide our customers with the best end to end solutions to treat and recycle water at the lowest energy cost. Murray Company is committed to being the most respected, sought after mechanical contractor and engineers , providing value added services while creating successful partnerships with each of our clients.
Our Mission is to transform innovative ideas into long-term value for our customers, employees and shareholders. We will transform Cypress from a traditional broad-line semiconductor company to the leading supplier of programmable solutions in systems everywhere.
We are committed to be a world-class , precision machine shop. We will do this by providing our customers with product that is exceptional in quality, while maintaining a flexible delivery schedule tailored to their needs. We will value our relationships with our customers and our employees and will continue to adapt and be responsive to their changing needs with honesty and integrity. The mission of FM Industries is to provide our customers with manufacturing solutions and services that are consistently high in quality, on time and at prices that are competitive.
We will emphasize responsiveness and quality of service in all dealings with the customer. Employees: Invest in the human resources of FMI to accomplish our objectives and enhance career opportunities for our employees. Shareholders: Generate sufficient earnings to sustain the growth objectives of FMI and achieve equitable returns for our shareholders. Community: Act as a good corporate citizen by respecting the environment and supporting activities that contribute to our local community.
No one gets up earlier, works harder, or is more dedicated than the solutions team of FM Industries. Our mission is to deliver the best customer driven designs possible , with leading performance and quality while maintaining a highly competitive price. To create value for our customers by identifying and securing manufacturing equipment lines that are match to both their production and technology requirements.
EDAX is dedicated to advancing the understanding of materials for the benefit of science and society worldwide. Our goals are to exceed the expectations of our customers, employees, and stockholders. We offer Innovative solutions to new customer requirements for production automation and IT and the analys of the environment and health. We develop new products and services for our basic markets and on request of our customers.
We are only satisfied when you are too. CISC Semiconductor strives to offer its employees a surrounding that combines both, excellent quality of life and prospects to grow within an innovative company operating on an international scale. Our mission is to enable rapid screening of concepts and optimization of downselected designs simulation-based design and processes , thereby accelerating your product development. Retronix Semiconductor is a fast growing semiconductor equipment support provider.
Our mission is to provide engineering services and staffing solutions to our customers, working diligently to exceed their expectations. A warm welcome to our customers. We want to become and be the preferred supplier and partner for end customers and distributors in our major business field.
We make a broad commitment to service quality and make it the focus of our company culture and values. At SunEdison Semiconductor our mission is to provide the highest value products and services to our customers in the semiconductor and solar industries through exceptional quality, technology and service. To be the market leader and preferred partner through dedication to superior service, innovation and engineered solutions.
Our mission was to build a business that would grow through building relationships. To ensure this, America Semiconductor only sells through distribution. We are committed to the establishment of procedures to ensure the promotion, development and maintenance of the highest standards of honesty, integrity and ethical conduct of the addressees in the performance of their daily duties and responsibilities. To deliver the highest level of service to our customers at all times — striving to be their critical partner as we assist them in growing efficient, ubiquitous wireless networks.
SK Telecom creates new value across industrial boundaries by practicing innovation on a daily basis, using its strong business infrastructure and human resources to make a happier and richer world.
At TDS, our mission is to provide outstanding communications services to our customers and meet the needs of our shareholders, our people and our communities. To provide and develop innovative and high quality products, services and solutions which offer the best value to our customers. To continuously enhance shareholders value. To provide a better quality of life for our stakeholders. To be the Specialist in the differentiated branded mobile phone market segment. To be the leading motion game publisher in China. As much as technology changes, our goal remains the same: to help our customers create, innovate, design, and build faster and better.
We lead transformation through mobility. The potential of the Networked Society lies in transformation through mobility. Transformation in the way people organize their individual lives and carry out vital tasks. Transformation in the way we work, the way we share information, and the way we do business. Transformation in the way we consume and the way we create. Comtech Telecommunications Corp.
To utilize our people and innovative technology to provide our clients with field marketing services to drive sales and profits. The mission of ROFDA is to promote and support the retailer-owned distribution segment of the food industry with value added programs and services, all in furtherance of servicing independent retail grocers located throughout America. Its mission is to deliver long-term value to its customers, partners and shareholders through financial discipline, operational expertise, and technology innovation.
This mission infuses everything we do, from our internal operations to how we conduct ourselves in the marketplace and how we communicate and connect with our local and global neighbours. Our mission is to help the best consumers find the best service providers and promote happy transactions. Our mission is simple: make technology an asset for your business not a problem. That is unacceptable. We work around your business. We strive to make technology integrate seamlessly with your business so your business can grow.
As your technology partner, when your business grows ours will grow with you, therefore, we will work hand in hand with you to support your growth. To be the providers of I. The strategies evolved should be economical, efficient, durable, flexible and allow the organisations to respond rapidly to both market and customer needs. SpaceDev was founded with the vision of producing innovative and affordable space solutions to enable humanity to explore and develop space through practical and profitable steps.
To realize this vision, we are developing evolutionary building blocks — starting with affordable mircrosatellites and their associated subsystems , and safe affordable propulsion and launch systems. GT brings fifteen years experience applying advanced digital technologies to complex building projects undertaken by Gehry Partners and other leading architecture and engineering companies.
Our clients are firms and building teams interested in moving beyond the limits of drafting and paper driven project management and into 21st century, digitally enabled design and construction practices. Gehry Technologies promotes this transformation of building design and delivery practices through three inter-related Centers of effort: Software Products, Consulting and Services and Research and Education. We strive to develop a superior Internet browser for our users through state-of-the-art technology, innovation, leadership and partnerships. MetalSoft is dedicated to delivering the most advanced innovation and technology to the sheet metal fabrication industry.
Our vision is to build a bridge between humans and machines through software technology. We believe that effective communication between humans and machines is the key to the future of the manufacturing industry. To implement this vision, MetalSoft has built a global research and development network that extends throughout the U.
True to our Engineering roots, MetalSoft maintains an innovation-centric corporate culture designed to promote and develop the creativity of each employee and maximize our ability to meet the needs of the fast-changing sheet metal fabrication industry. Our mission is: to deliver the best possible reliable software solutions to help our clients improve IT efficiency and business profitability. We will continually communicate with, and learn from our Customers, in order to improve our products and services.
To connect people with their world , everywhere they live and work, and do it better than anyone else. The 21st century is sure to bring more innovation, new services and newer technology, thus new products and services to sell. Avnet will continue to shape and lead the markets in which it chooses to compete. We strive to build long-term client relationships based on mutual trust and respect. To strengthen and grow our leadership position by providing storage products across a range of market segments , including desktop computers, consumer electronics, midline and nearline storage systems, and high-performance servers.
Through computing innovation, we push the boundaries of smart and connected technology to make amazing experiences possible for every person on earth. We help you simplify your IT environment so that you can free up money, time, and resources to invest in innovation. We do this by providing a comprehensive and fully integrated stack of cloud applications, platform services, and engineered systems.
To empower creators to make their best work and get it in front of the audience they deserve,. To give everyone the power to create and share ideas and information instantly, without barriers. To enterprise as many children as we can and inspire them to start their entrepreneurial journeys. Our mission is global transformation through ethical relationships with small-scale farmers, and an integral sustainability orientation at every point on the supply chain. We believe that every child should have access to an exceptional, personalized education that enables them to be happy and successful in an ever-changing world.
We foster sustainable economic growth and human development by connecting people with actionable information from farmers to corporate and national policy makers. We are dedicated to bringing you the freshest fish, meats, and produce with the greatest consciousness to marine stewardship, sustainability, and the environment. Our mission is to serve our clients by creating high-performance buildings that are cost-effective, efficient, and sustainable.
Better World Books is a global bookstore that harnesses the power of capitalism to bring literacy and opportunity to people around the world. Our mission is to create vibrant cafes that reflect, improve, and inspire our communities. Our mission is to inspire and empower people to lead the way to a renewably powered future. To help social enterprises and charities raise the funding and support they need. Our mission is to provide talented individuals with meaningful pro bono experiences in order to build capacity for social good organizations. Our mission is to break the misconception that one needs thorough knowledge of art in order to fully enjoy and appreciate it.
Our mission is to help all companies harness the power of business to create positive social and environmental change. To enhance the financial wellness of our clients in a socially responsible manner by bringing to bear our years of experience, knowledge and integrity. To help support the transition of 1, brands from the old economy to the new economy by To remove the stigma around menstruation and to change the experience from a monthly nuisance to a monthly opportunity for self-care, self-love, and good karma.
We envision a world made better by travel and travel made richer by connection. Couchsurfers share their lives with the people they encounter, fostering cultural exchange and mutual respect. To foster access to sustainability and corporate social responsibility CSR information. We aim to be an engine of transparency that encourages more consistent and actionable disclosure from all types of organizations.
To assist our clients achieve optimal organizational performance through integration of employee safety, health and well-being. Dimensions strives to make the workplace a better place. To ensure that every student can achieve his or her potential irrespective of gender or ethnicity, where they live or what their parents do. To offer the purest, most elemental ingredients and organic herbs in natural healing products that are good for people and good for the earth.
Our mission at Essential Living foods is to improve the health of the planet, its people, and their communities. Our mission is to reimagine commerce in ways that build a more fulfilling and lasting world. To empower people to create a better way to eat , by creating farm-to-neighborhood access to fresh food, benefiting local farmers and bypassing supermarkets.
Father Nature is a landscape gardening and horticultural organisation with soul. Feronia Forests is dedicated to finding smart ways to nurture, improve, and conserve forestland for future generations. Found My Animal promotes animal adoption in a very direct way: let your pet wear your values. By encouraging rescue over purchase, we support animal welfare by asking pets and their owners to help deliver our simple, important message.
To play an integral role in the entrepreneurship experience of Canadians by providing financing, mentoring and tools that will help them build sustainable businesses and create value. GINA is a UK social enterprise offering unparalleled opportunities for people affected by rape and sexual abuse to express themselves in a way that promotes freedom of choice through our unique products and events.
We exist to improve the quality of life in our communities. We do this by serving and delighting our customers, giving time and profits to our community, growing employees and helping them realize their full potential, and leading others by inspiring them to give, serve, and grow. To provide high quality sustainable menstrual products and empower women by positively transforming the experience of menstruation.
To accelerate the flow of capital to enterprises that create innovative, market-based solutions to inequality, poverty, and other social problems and in doing so amplify their total impact. Green City Growers transforms unused space into thriving urban farms , providing our clients with immediate access to nutritious food, while revitalizing city landscapes and inspiring self-sufficiency.
To be the best small company in America by empowering customers to save money and move to clean energy sources. Greyston is a force for personal transformation and community economic renewal. We operate a profitable business, baking high quality products with a commitment to customer satisfaction. Grounded in a philosophy that we call PathMaking , we create jobs and provide integrated programs for individuals and their families to move forward on their path to self-sufficiency.
To transform waste glass into something beautiful while taking care of our employees and the planet at the same time. The Mamma Chia Mission is to share the magic of chia and lead in its renaissance. We are dedicated to offering the highest quality organic chia-based foods and beverages that provide vitality, energy and strength. Mamma Chia is a conscious and sustainable company that honors and uplifts both the soul of humanity and the soul of the planet.
Mightybytes is a creative firm committed to creating positive environmental and social change while providing unparalleled support to our clients. Our mission is to facilitate change to transform the way companies prioritize and take action to become socially and environmentally responsible. We help people enjoy the benefits of self-propelled wilderness-oriented recreation.
To overcome death and disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated water by providing safe, clean water to those in need around the world. Our mission is to improve the lives of all we touch by creating meaningful work; minimizing use of resources while maximizing the potential of our communities; and delivering sustainable financial profit to fund this mission. To bring the transformative power of play to youth living in disadvantaged communities worldwide.
Our company seeks to bridge the worlds of plastics packaging design, manufacturing, reuse, recycling, and sustainability. Our mission is to provide unique, sophisticated design solutions while maintaining the utmost attention to detail. We strive to provide exemplary customer service and build strong, lasting relationships with our clients.
And we mean all little ones. We make shopping for quality, healthy, and sustainable groceries simple and easy. The 21st century will see dramatic retooling of the ways we live together on the planet. Renewal Funds invests in change by supporting businesses at the forefront of social and environmental innovation. We are passionate about creating snacks that taste incredible and that your family can enjoy without guilt or fear. To provide people with the choice to invest their money in companies that value social and environmental responsibility alongside profitability.
To improve life for everyone who drinks water, with sustainable, plant-based filters that make water healthy and delicious, beautiful carafes and pitchers, and the convenient Filters by Mail service. To create exceptional products that are affordable for people and good for the planet. Our mission is to help nonprofits utilize the salesforce platform to extend their reach and communicate their impact. To provide products that are the highest quality, healthy, and environmentally friendly to parents throughout the world. We strive to empower our employees and customers with the knowledge necessary to make a positive impact on the planet through natural parenting.
Our mission is to reach out to all women , and for all women, to enhance their role in their own lives, in their local communities, in business and in the wider world. We feel it is imperative to reconnect people to each other and to the earth. We hope that we, as a company, can be the change we wish to see in the world. To create an online community that harnesses the collective efforts of our members committed to solving the problem of material waste.
Making learning global and ensuring that every student is prepared to succeed in our interconnected world. That she was, if let loose, a danger both to herself and to others was axiomatic. Devout women had participated enthusiastically in pilgrimage since the fourth century, and criticism had begun instantly.
A letter written to Boniface by Aethelberht II of Kent, who came to the throne in , is evidence that Eadburga did in fact go to Rome and met Boniface there, perhaps in when he attended a synod with Pope Zacharias. Before the end of the eighth century, the Synod of Friuli legislated against pilgrimage by nuns [3,e]; many similar enactments would follow down the centuries.
There is little to indicate that ordinary laywomen met any real obstacles to setting out on pilgrimages, but their presence could be disconcerting, especially for the custodians of monastic shrines. When a collection of new relics arrived at Fleury early in the ninth century, the crowds which came to venerate them included a number of women, who could not be admitted to the church. These included the misbehaviour of the rich and powerful who might extort money from their dependants on the pretext that they were going on pilgrimage and of the poor who might use pilgrimage as an excuse for vagabondage and mendicancy.
The use of pilgrimage as penance, and perhaps just as important, the vague perception that pilgrimage was meritorious and led quasi-automatically to the forgiveness of sin, generated serious problems of understanding. Especially in the Celtic church, pilgrimages, which were sometimes scarcely distinguishable from sentences of exile, had been prescribed for a variety of offences.
An early eighth-century Irish collection of canons prescribed pilgrimage as one possible penalty for the violation of relics. If the sacrilege was accompanied by murder, the pilgrimage was to last seven years; if only by theft, for three. Over two hundred years later, c. A more satisfactory solution, which preserved the respect due to the pope as the supreme source of ecclesiastical authority, was to send the penitent to Rome to receive his penance [6,a].
This practice can be seen at the root of the reserved jurisdiction later exercised by the pope over certain offences. Before , the concept seems to have been some- what generalised and inclusive. Indulgences, as they became familiar after the eleventh century, remitted a stated quantity of penance. The former was addressed by contrition and confession, followed by absolution, the latter by the performance of penance.
Indulgences remitted penance either in terms of time or of a certain proportion of the total due. With the crystallising con- ception of Purgatory as an intermediate state, still existing in time, in which penance which for whatever reason had not been worked off in life could be performed, indulgences came more and more to be regarded as alleviating the burden of posthumous suffering feared by the sinner.
In the eleventh century, such a pilgrimage might be imposed on a high-ranking sinner, or such a person might ostenta- tiously take that burden upon himself. In about Peter Damian was supervising the correction of the simoniacal clergy of Milan: the archbishop announced that he was sending his clerks to Rome or Tours, but that he himself would go to Compostela. The conspicuous pilgrimages of a conspicuous sinner such as Fulk Nerra, count of Anjou, are a case in point.
Fulk went three times in all to Jerusalem, in , and at the end of his life, in or He came back in high spirits and for a while abated his natural ferocity, founding the abbey of Loches as a further precautionary measure. In he went to Jerusalem via Rome, where Pope Sergius IV, presumably on the principle of setting a thief to catch a thief, complained to him of the depredations of the robber- baron Crescentius on pilgrims and merchants coming to Rome. In he died at Metz on his way back from his last pilgrimage.
The norm, for both landholding aristocracy and peasant cultivators, was a much more regionalised, even localised, ritual of veneration paid to the relics possessed by local monasteries and other churches. This could be a regular event, based on family and personal ties with the shrine and with the saint, and formed an element in the ongoing relationships between monks, frequently the custodians of celebrated relics, and their neighbours both powerful and less powerful.
The peace councils which began in the tenth century tried to mobilise the reverence with which local populations viewed the relics which were paraded on these occasions, and to induce the more thuggish elements in the military aristocracy at least to act as if they shared it. The legend that the apostle James was buried in the far north-west of Spain gained currency from the ninth century on and began to attract pilgrimage to Compostela, 20 which in time nourished incidental pilgrimage to a host of places along the major routes leading to it.
He returned via Bourges to Orleans in time to receive Easter communion. Much has been written about the Via Francigena, the route, or complex of routes, which led the traveller from north-western Europe to Rome. At the head of the Mont Cenis stood the great abbey of Novalesa, dedicated to St Peter, where Louis the Pious endowed a hospice early in the ninth century.
At some point along this road he would branch off along one of a number of known tracks across the Apennines. Willebald and Winnebald were obviously following the best-known of these when their father died at Lucca. By chance, his itinerary survives, including both the details of his tour of the churches of Rome and his overnight stops on the way back to England . A total of eighty overnight stops between Rome and the Channel means a journey of about twelve weeks in total, depending how quickly the archbishop found a ship and whether wind and water permitted a speedy passage.
We may surmise that like later Italian pilgrims who went overland to Compostela he descended into France via Grenoble and the Rhone Valley, picking up what would later be called the Via Tolosana. Of these, pride of place must surely be given to Bernard of Aosta, whose charitable and evan- gelising work in the alpine region has been immortalised by the names subsequently given to the Great and Little St Bernard passes, not to mention the dog.
He died on his way to Rome, reputedly around the year , at Voghera, on the road between the Mont Cenis and Piacenza, and was venerated there. Bobo and Gerald of Aurillac turned to God in a moderated style, never abandoning the vita activa even while they took on certain monastic austerities. It was also open to the man and woman who remained in the world to earn merit by charity, to pilgrims among others.
At Lucca there was another wave of benefaction to hospitals in the late eleventh century, again in- volving both clergy and laity. By the mid- twelfth century the hospital of Altopascio on the Via Francigena, not far from Lucca, was receiving bequests. One prospective Jerusalem pilgrim, in , left his bed and bedding to his daughter with the proviso that if she died before she had found a husband, the bed was to go to Altopascio.
The monks were de- ceived by appearances into offering him the usual services, including foot-washing. That some sort of public ceremony had marked the departure of pilgrims, perhaps for centuries, seems almost to be implied by the penitential uses made of pilgrimage and the attempts of lay and ecclesiastical authorities to impose a degree of control on the practice; the penitential pilgrim should surely not have been allowed to slip out of his neighbourhood unnoticed.
Ekkehard of Aura wrote of the excited response to the call to crusade: Many showed the sign of the cross miraculously imprinted on their foreheads or their clothes or on some part of their body, and believed that by this mark they had been enrolled in the army of the Lord. The promotion of a variety of cult-centres by the production and dissemination of miracle stories, which gathered momentum in and after the eleventh century, immeasurably enriched the literature of pilgrimage and makes it possible for us at least to indulge in some speculations about the sociology and psychology of its clientele.
The saints in action served the interests both of the monks and clergy who venerated them and of the public which sought their help and made offerings to them in hope and gratitude. It is a very marked feature of miracle-collections throughout the middle ages that saints and shrines seem to be in competition. It became a topos to allege that the saint one happened to be celebrating had cured a sufferer who had come away empty-handed from every other shrine he or she had visited, even from St Peter at Rome.
Related among the miracles of St Benedict at Fleury is the cure of a girl who was taken to St Denis and St Martial before it was realised that Benedict, who was near at hand, would be more effective. Sometimes a saint would even allegedly appear in a vision and instruct a pilgrim to go elsewhere. The mid-eleventh-century compiler of the miracles of San Prospero at Reggio, on the Via Emilia in northern Italy, refers to a native of Benevento in southern Italy who was on his way to Tours when he was cured at Reggio.
Here, the picture of the competition, and of the trajectory along which pilgrims were travelling, is simple and clear-cut. In his theoretical attitude he stood at a point of juncture between old and new. This clearly could not be tolerated, by Foy or by her custodians, and Odalric, whose character is further blackened by the suggestion that he retired to bed drunk, was soundly beaten in his sleep by the indignant saint.
Bernard expressed the view that a stop should be put to this, only to be met with the argument that, once again, the practice was ineradicable and anyway not evil. Once more, Bernard had to work this out. At the end of the tenth century, the hermit Simeon made this crossing by miraculous means, because the usual boat was not there. Bernard of Angers related how a merchant from the Auvergne noted the demand for wax at Conques and thought that the price being exacted from the pilgrims who wanted to offer candles was far too low.
This did not mean that no one thought of bringing back mementoes of their holy travels. Decorated ampullae containing holy oil or water had been available in Palestine in the sixth century and examples found their way west. In the early eleventh century, pilgrims to Mont St Michel in Normandy liked to take away stones from the mount, but this could be hazardous if done without authorisation.
This is vividly illustrated by the eagerness with which Richard collected a stone, thrown by an impious Saracen, which happened to fall into the Holy Sepulchre. It was presumably only the prospect of a moderately long journey which prompted men and women to make testamentary disposition of their property before their departure, or to enter into other prop- erty deals with local monasteries, sometimes to raise money for the trip.
Records of these begin to survive in monastic cartularies in modest numbers in the tenth century . Richard of St Vannes led over seven hundred people to Jerusalem, subsidised by the duke of Normandy [8,a]. The mem- bers of this party made differing choices of onward route when they came to Antioch, the abbot opting for a sea passage from there to Jerusalem, the monk Herbert pressing on overland. Neither was fated to progress: the abbot died peacefully in Cyprus, and Herbert fell ill at Lattakieh and went straight home as soon as he could get out of bed.
The governor of Ramleh underlined the point by detaining the pilgrims in his city for two weeks, during which time they presumably had to purchase goods and services from the natives. Willibald, in the early eighth century, had experienced some prob- lems in the Holy Land. Peter Damian gives a vivid picture of the Empress Adelaide forcibly sitting him down under the confessio of St Peter and confessing to him every last detail of her trivial sins from infancy upwards, as minutely as if the apostle himself were bodily present.
While Damian understand- ably could not think what penance to impose on her, he wished that other pilgrims could be inspired by her example. The ancient belief that pilgrimage carried with it the promise of forgive- ness of sin took on greater precision in the form of the indulgence, and the history of western pilgrimage down to the sixteenth century is deeply coloured by this development, but this does not mean that everything about it was transformed. The pilgrimages of Benedict Biscop d. In these and similar ways he laboured so that we should not have the necessity of doing so.
Even when he was overcome with bodily weak- ness and suffered severely, he always, among his other duties of thanksgiving to God, took pleasure in talking over and over again of the monastic observances which he had learned and taught, of the ecclesiastical customs which he had seen in all cities and especially at Rome, and of the holy places which he remembered having visited as a young man.
Pertuald of Lucca makes gifts to his foundation of San Michele, Christ Himself, the founder of all churches, gives us hope and cer- tainty that what [sins] we do from our youth we can wash away by good and holy works. Wherefore, I the devout Pertuald, considering my soul, while, drawn not by my necessities but by the compulsion of God, I went far away from the city on pilgrimage, embraced the desire to protect the widow, child and orphan, and having returned home according to the will of God from the shrine of the blessed Peter, prince of the apostles, in the city of Rome, I have carried out to the best of my ability, with His assistance, the work which I there vowed to him.
Wherefore I the devout Pertuald offer to God and to you, the church of the blessed Michael the Archangel, which I have established from its foundations near the house where I live [the properties now described]. Carolingian legislation and church councils a The Capitulary of Pepin, —55 c. The composition for the homicide shall be paid in addition to whomsoever it pertains to by law. That those rascals and good- for-nothings who lawlessly wander about this land be not permitted to wander and practise deceptions on people, nor those who say that a penance has been laid upon them to go about naked with iron [chains].
No one is so obtuse or stupid as to be unaware how irreligious and reprehensible it is [for them] to have dealings with men on account of the necessities of travel … [Mansi, XIII, cols —1. And this is proclaimed to all the faithful, that anyone who wishes to go to the shrines of the blessed apostles by reason of prayer shall confess his sins at home and thus set out; because the power of binding and loosing belongs to his own bishop and priest, not to another. There are priests and deacons and other clergy who, living carelessly, think that they are purged of their sins thereby and may perform their ministry, if they go to these places.
There are laity no less, who think they can sin, or have sinned, with impunity because they are going to pray at these places. There are some powerful men, who acquire a great deal by levying taxes on the pretext of a journey to Rome or Tours and who do it solely out of cupidity, pretending that they are doing so by reason of a visit to a church or holy places.
There are poor people who do the same in order to have a better pretext for begging. Those people, however, who have confessed their sins to the priests in whose parishes they lived, and from them have received counsel as to the penance they are to do, if, intent on prayer, giving alms, amending their lives and reforming their conduct, they wish to visit the shrines of the apostles or of any other saints, their devotion is by all means to be com- mended.
Therefore we desire that our counts and their sculdassi, in co-operation with episcopal vassals if need be, whenever they hear of such people, diligently investigate and seize and try them. And if they are found guilty of this crime, the penalties pro- vided in the laws shall be exacted without negligence, so that our kingdom may be purged of such malefactors and those who come hither trusting in us, whether by reason of prayer or business, may be safe.
Early ninth century: women pilgrims at Fleury The relics of the saints were followed however by a large crowd of men and women, with great devotion, because of the miracles granted by God through the blessed martyrs. By no means were they able to obtain consent, since this was against monastic observance. They persisted in their prayers, and certain persons of higher status quique nobiliores , alerted by all this excitement, came from all around to see so holy a spectacle and added their prayers.
The itinerary of Archbishop Sigeric of Canterbury, c. Then they returned home. These are the overnight stops [submansiones] from Rome to the sea. The city of Rome 2. San Giovanni in Nono 3. Baccano 4. Sutri 5. Forcassi 6. Bolsena [Sce Cristina] 9. Acquapendente Le Briccole [Abricola] Torrenieri [Turreiner] Siena [Seocine] Borgo Nuovo Mar- tino Fosci San Gimignano Maria a Chianni [Sce Maria Glan] Pietro a Coiano [Sce Petre Currant] Genesio [Sce Dionisii] A bridging-point on the Upper Arno [Arne Blanca] 61 The river Usciana? Porcari [Forcri] Lucca Camaiore Luni Stefano Abbazia di S.
Caprasio [Aguilla] Pontremoli Montelongo [Sce Benedicte] Berceto [Sce Moderanne] Fornovo sul Taro [Philemangenur] Costa Mezzana [Metane] Firenzuola [Floricum] Piacenza Corte S. Andrea Cristina Pavia [Pamphica] Tromello [Tremel] Ver- celli Ivrea [Everi] Poley [Publei] Bourg-St-Pierre [Petrecastel] St Maurice Aigde [Burbulei] Vevey [Vivaec] Lausanne Orbe Yverdun [Antifern] Pontarlier [Punt- erlin] Nods Seveux [Sefui] Grenant Humes [Oisma] Bar-sur-Aube Brienne-la-Vieille [Breone] Donnement [Domaniant] Fontaine-sur-Coole [Funtaine] Reims Corbeny Laon [Mundothluin] Doingt [Duin] Arras [Atherats] Bruay Sombre [Sumeran].
Penitential pilgrimage a Penitential letters collected by Wulfstan, c. Wulfstan] bishop of London to all his brothers and fellow-servants in God, greeting. We desire you to know that this man, deceived by diabolical fraud, has incurred the guilt of parricide. Wherefore we pray that you pour forth the assistance of your prayers to omnipotent God so that Christ the Lord with his abundant clemency may deign to forgive him the guilt of such a great crime.
This man came to the shrine of the apostles on account of a fratricide he had committed and for his other crimes, seeking from us the remedy of penance. If you choose to offer him any remedy, we give you leave. If however because of hostile attacks he cannot fast, his priest may carefully entrust him to one of his fellows where he may fast in peace. The same breastplate was to bind his belly, the same lance his arms, with which he had with parricidal rashness spilt the blood of his kinsman, so that the cause of the guilt should also administer the punishment.
He was to become accustomed to hunger and silence, and undergo heavy labour in the hope of good, by the wearing-down of his vices harvesting a heap of virtues. He was to endure in the hope of future glory what for the time being he undertook to obtain mercy, for future reward, what was now punishment. He went to Rome, and got as far as Jerusalem — a marvellous achievement at that time, when the prowess of our Christians had not yet made those tracks passable. There, he had no sooner been admitted to pray before the Sepulchre, when by the power of God the breastplate fell apart into fragments.
Returning, he toured the whole of Europe, undergoing many perils by land and sea. In the middle of his labours, he came to our monastery. There, while he was lying prostrate before the blessed mausoleum of the confessor [St Aldhelm] he received forgiveness. The force of his prayer was beating upon heaven; it penetrated the stars and drew down help from above.
But when he was sprinkled with cool liquid he recovered and paid his praises and thanks to God, in chorus with all the bystanders. Peter Damian to the Marquis Raniero, For the sins that you have confessed to me, great sir, I enjoined upon you that you should go to Jerusalem, and satisfy the divine justice with a lengthy pilgrimage.
But although, as the scripture says, you know not what the morrow has in store, you put the matter off and, while you fear the uncertainties of the journey, you fail to provide for yourself a secure lodging-place. We in fact exercise a certain judgement in the allocation of this penance. We do not restrain everyone who seeks counsel of us from this journey, nor do we give free rein to everyone who wants to go. Those who live the regular life and observe the rules of canonical or monastic religion, we urge to remain in the vocation in which they are placed and not to neglect those things which are essential in favour of those which are dependent on human judgement.
And travelling in this manner, they may by making pilgrimage provide for themselves the tranquil lodging-place of the fatherland. Often in fact, when one is most doubtful of human calculation, then it is that the heavenly clemency comes most readily to our aid, and when we despair of human comfort, we perceive that divine protection is at hand. They have scarcely ended their prayer when they perceive lying in their path a loaf of both great size and wondrous whiteness. They all marvel at the sight, certainly not unaware that a mass of such weight could not have fallen out of the load of an unknowing bearer.
Then they acknow- ledge the gift of heavenly pity, and the bread of divine generosity, and as they were eight in number, they divide it into so many pieces. This same brother Richard told me something else which I do not think it proper to pass over in silence. He says that our brother Agius, a man well on in years and notable in religion, while he was still living in the world, went on pilgrimage to the church of the blessed archangel Michael, which is built on Monte Gargano, near Sipontum. He and his brother, a secular man, had one horse between them, on which they took turns to ride to relieve the labour of the journey.
But when he saw that their fellow-travellers needed help with carrying their bundles, he told his brother that they should both abstain from riding the beast, and out of charity for their companions make it available to carry their burdens. Later, while they were resting, worn out by the toil of the long road, and restoring their empty stomachs with food, brother Agius dipped a piece of bread in a cup of wine, but putting it down beside him put off eating while he rested.
While they were thus taking their ease, behold, robbers suddenly attacked them, and got away with everything, including the horse. Then, darting nimbly away, he ran swiftly ahead and persuaded his companions that unless they restored the beast to the servant of God as quickly as possible, they would not avoid the imminent peril of divine vengeance. Overcome by heavenly terror, they at once returned to the man of God and with groans sought forgiveness for their presumption, at the same time restoring the beast together with the things they had stolen.
The divine mercy, therefore, is not far with its protection from those whom it considers to be devotedly labouring in its service. The waves towered and the ship foundered, and all his companions perished in the stormy sea. It happened then that some rowers, ploughing over the sea, saw him from afar and charitably drew him to them and restored him with food and looked after him kindly.
So it was that he who preserved Paul unhurt day and night in the depths of the sea, sustained this brother too, in the very inundation of the raging storm, lest he be sucked into the watery maw. And by the command of him by whose virtue the gullet of the voracious beast spewed forth Jonah, the resilient wave spread out below this man not to swallow him up but to preserve him.
Go forth, get moving, contend, he will be the guide of your journey who is also author of the reward. He gives effect to good works who moves the affection of the pious heart. Reindel 4 vols, MGH, —93 , n. Jerusalem pilgrimage in the eleventh century a The pilgrimage of Richard of St Vannes, The burden of ruling [the monastery of] Grace Dieu now seemed heavy to this father, who desired to progress and more freely devote himself to divine contemplation, as the world had already died in his heart.
It was well-known that certain people who had gone to Jerusalem had died a happy death there, among them a man from the region of Autun. What the exultation of his contrite and humbled spirit! What the jubilation of his heart, when he saw himself present where Christ was born, where he suffered, where he was buried, where his feet last stood when he ascended into heaven.
Everywhere that he prayed, he soaked the ground with tears, the cry of his heart rose up to the Lord, his body sank down, his spirit rose aloft. He spent the night continually in vigils, he wore down his body with fasts, never without tears, never without prayers; his whole being exulted in the Lord, but he cloaked the gladness of his mind with serenity of countenance … [Hugh of Flavigny, Chron- icon, MGH SS 8, pp. Then he came to the River Jordan, in which the Saviour of the World washed away the guilt of our sins, and taking off his clothes descended into the water … [Vita Posterior, ibid.
Most earnestly they commended their intention to them, praying that they might be enabled to complete the arduous course of the regular life, by which they longed to attain the celestial fatherland. Stirred by this terror, not only the common people, but rulers, men distinguished by birth and rank, and the very bishops of various cities, resplendent in glory and honour, left their homeland, kin and riches, and by a narrow path, taking up the cross, followed Christ.
In his company there were many men of reputation, both clergy and laity, from eastern France as well as from Bavaria. For shame! On this journey there was a memorable incident, which I will include by way of example, so that those who obstinately reject the counsels of the wiser may take fright at it. There was on this expedition a certain noble abbess, fair of form and devout of mind, who had abandoned the care of the sisters entrusted to her and against all the advice of wiser heads had subjected herself to the dangers of this pilgrimage.
She was captured by the pagans, and in the sight of everybody, raped by the shameless ones for so long that at last, to the disgrace of all Christians, she breathed her last. At this point Cyrus sent back the Cilician queen to her own country by the quickest route; and to escort her he sent the soldiers of Menon, and Menon himself. With the rest of the troops he continued his march through Cappadocia four stages--twenty-five parasangs--to Dana, a populous city, large and flourishing.
Here they halted three days, within which interval Cyrus put to death, on a charge of conspiracy, a Persian nobleman named Megaphernes, a wearer of the royal purple; and along with him another high dignitary among his subordinate commanders. From this place they endeavoured to force a passage into Cilicia. Now 21 the entrance was by an exceedingly steep cart-road, impracticable for an army in face of a resisting force; and report said that Syennesis was on the summit of the pass guarding the approach.
Accordingly they halted a day in the plain; but next day came a messenger informing them that Syenesis had left the pass; doubtless, after perceiving that Menon's army was already in Cilicia on his own side of the mountains; and he had further been informed that ships of war, belonging to the Lacedaemonians and to Cyrus himself, with Tamos on board as admiral, were sailing round from Ionia to Cilicia. Whatever the reason might be, Cyrus made his way up into the hills without let or hindrance, and came in sight of the tents where the Cilicians were on guard.
From that point he descended gradually into a large and beautiful plain country, well watered, and thickly covered with trees of all sorts and vines. This plain produces sesame plentifully, as also panic and millet and barley and wheat; and it is shut in on all sides by a steep and lofty wall of mountains from sea to sea. Descending through this plain country, he advanced four stages--twenty-five parasangs--to Tarsus, a large and prosperous city of Cilicia.
Here stood the palace of Syennesis, the king of the country; and through the middle of the city flows a river called the Cydnus, two hundred feet broad. They found that the city had been deserted by its inhabitants, who had betaken themselves, with Syennesis, to a strong place on the hills. All had gone, except the tavern-keepers. The sea-board inhabitants of Soli and Issi also remained.
Now Epyaxa, Syennesis's queen, had reached Tarsus five days in advance of Cyrus. During their passage over the mountains into the plain, two companies of Menon's army were lost. Some said they had been cut down by the Cilicians, while engaged on some pillaging affair; another account was that they had been left behind, and being unable to overtake the main body, or discover the route, had gone astray and perished.
However it was, they numbered one hundred hoplites; and when the rest arrived, being in a fury at the destruction of their fellow soldiers, they vented their spleen by pillaging the city of Tarsus and the palace to boot. Now when Cyrus had marched into the city, he sent for Syennesis to come to him; but 26 the latter replied that he had never yet put himself into the hands of any one who was his superior, nor was he willing to accede to the proposal of Cyrus now; until, in the end, his wife persuaded him, and he accepted pledges of good faith.
After this they met, and Syennesis gave Cyrus large sums in aid of his army; while Cyrus presented him with the customary royal gifts--to wit, a horse with a gold bit, a necklace of gold, a gold bracelet, and a gold scimitar, a Persian dress, and lastly, the exemption of his territory from further pillage, with the privilege of taking back the slaves that had been seized, wherever they might chance to come upon them.
At Tarsus Cyrus and his army halted for twenty days; the soldiers 1 refusing to advance further, since the suspicion ripened in their minds, that the expedition was in reality directed against the king; and as they insisted, they had not engaged their services for that object.
Clearchus set the example of trying to force his men to continue their march; but he had no sooner started at the head of his troops than they began to pelt him and his baggage train, and Clearchus had a narrow escape of being stoned to death there and then. Later on, when he perceived that force was useless, he summoned an assembly of his own men; and for a long while he stood and wept, while the men gazed in silent astonishment. At last he spoke as follows: "Fellow soldiers, do not marvel that I am sorely distressed on account of the present troubles.
Cyrus has been no ordinary friend to me. When I was in banishment he honoured me in various ways, and made me also a present of ten thousand darics. These I accepted, but not to lay them up for myself for private use; not to squander them in pleasure, but to expend them on yourselves. And, first of all, I went to war with the Thracians, and with you to aid, I wreaked vengeance on them in behalf of Hellas; driving them out of the Chersonese, when they wanted to deprive its Hellenic inhabitants of their lands.
But as soon as Cyrus summoned me, I took you with me and set out, so that, if my benefactor had any need of me, I might requite him for the good treatment I myself had received at his hands. But since you are not minded to continue the march with me, one of two things is left to 5 me to do; either I must renounce you for the sake of my friendship with Cyrus, or I must go with you at the cost of deceiving him.
Whether I am about to do right or not, I cannot say, but I choose yourselves; and, whatever betide, I mean to share your fate. Never shall it be said of me by any one that, having led Greek troops against the barbarians, I betrayed the Hellenes, and chose the friendship of the barbarian. Whatever betide, I will share your fate. I look upon you as my country, my friends, my allies; with you I think I shall be honoured, wherever I be; without you I do not see how I can help a friend or hurt a foe. My decision is taken.
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Wherever you go, I go also. Such were his words. But the soldiers, not only his own, but the rest also, when they heard what he said, and how he had scouted the idea of going up to the great king's palace, expressed their approval; and more than two thousand men deserted Xenias and Pasion, and took their arms and baggage-train, and came and encamped with Clearchus.
But Cyrus, in despair and vexation at this turn of affairs, sent for Clearchus. He refused to come; but, without the knowledge of the soldiers, sent a message to Cyrus, bidding him keep a good heart, for that all would arrange itself in the right way; and bade him keep on sending for him, whilst he himself refused to go. After that he got together his own men, with those who had joined him, and of the rest any who chose to come, and spoke as follows: "Fellow soldiers, it is clear that the relations of Cyrus to us are identical with ours to him.
We are no longer his soldiers, since we have ceased to follow him; and he, on his side, is no longer our paymaster. He, however, no doubt considers himself wronged by us; and though he goes on sending for me, I cannot bring myself to go to him: for two reasons, chiefly from a sense of shame, for I am forced to admit to myself that I have altogether deceived him; but partly, too, because I am afraid of his seizing me and inflicting a penalty on the wrongs which he conceives 11 that I have done him.
In my opinion, then, this is no time for us to go to sleep and forget all about ourselves, rather it is high time to deliberate on our next move; and as long as we do remain here, we had better bethink us how we are to abide in security; or, if we are resolved to turn our backs at once, what will be the safest means of retreat; and, further, how we are to procure supplies, for without supplies there is no profit whatsoever in the general or the private soldier. The man with whom we have to deal is an excellent friend to his friends, but a very dangerous enemy to his foes.
And he is backed by a force of infantry and cavalry and ships such as we all alike very well see and know, since we can hardly be said to have posted ourselves at any great distance from him.
If, then, any one has a suggestion to make, now is the time to speak. Then various speakers stood up; some of their own motion to propound their views; others inspired by Clearchus to dilate on the hopeless difficulty of either staying, or going back without the goodwill of Cyrus. One of these, in particular, with a make-believe of anxiety to commence the homeward march without further pause, called upon them instantly to choose other generals, if Clearchus were not himself prepared to lead them back: "Let them at once purchase supplies" the market being in the heart of the Asiatic camp , "let them pack up their baggage: let them," he added, "go to Cyrus and ask for some ships in order to return by sea: if he refused to give them ships, let them demand of him a guide to lead them back through a friendly district; and if he would not so much as give them a guide, they could but put themselves, without more ado, in marching order, and send on a detachment to occupy the pass--before Cyrus and the Cilicians, whose property," the speaker added, "we have so plentifully pillaged, can anticipate us.
Obedience, in the fullest, I can render to the man of 15 your choice, that is another matter: and you shall see and know that I can play my part, under command, with the best of you. After Clearchus another spokesman stood up, and proceeded to point out the simplicity of the speaker, who proposed to ask for vessels, just as if Cyrus were minded to renounce the expedition and sail back again. If we can trust any guide whom Cyrus may vouchsafe to us, why not order Cyrus at once to occupy the pass on our behoof? For my part, I should think twice before I set foot on any ships that he might give us, for fear lest he should sink them with his men-of-war; and I should equally hesitate to follow any guide of his: he might lead us into some place out of which we should find it impossible to escape.
I should much prefer, if I am to return home against the will of Cyrus at all, to give him the slip, and so begone: which indeed is impossible. But these schemes are simply nonsensical.
My proposal is that a deputation of fit persons, with Clearchus, should go to Cyrus: let them go to Cyrus and ask him: what use he proposes to make of us? But if the design should turn out to be of larger import than the former one--involving more toil and more danger--we should ask him, either to give us good reasons for following his lead, or else consent to send us away into a friendly country. In this way, whether we follow him, we shall do so as friends, and with heart and soul, or whether we go back, we shall do so in security.
The answer to this shall be reported to us here, and when we have heard it, we will advise as to our best course. This resolution was carried, and they chose and sent a deputation with Clearchus, who put to Cyrus the questions which had been agreed upon by the army. Cyrus replied as follows: That he had received news that Abrocomas, an enemy of his, was posted on the Euphrates, twelve stages 20 off; his object was to march against this aforesaid Abrocomas: and if he were still there, he wished to inflict punishment on him, "or if he be fled" so the reply concluded , "we will there deliberate on the best course.
The suspicion that he was leading them against the king was not dispelled; but it seemed best to follow him. They only demanded an increase of pay, and Cyrus promised to give them half as much again as they had hitherto received--that is to say, a daric and a half a month to each man, instead of a daric. Was he really leading them to attack the king? Not even at this moment was any one apprised of the fact, at any rate in any open and public manner.
From this point he marched two stages--ten parasangs--to the river 1 Psarus, which is two hundred feet broad, and from the Psarus he marched a single stage--five parasangs--to Issi, the last city in Cilicia. It lies on the seaboard--a prosperous, large and flourishing town. Here they halted three days, and here Cyrus was joined by his fleet. There were thirty-five ships from Peloponnesus, with the Lacedaemonian admiral Pythagoras on board.
These had been piloted from Ephesus by Tamos the Egyptian, who himself had another fleet of twenty-five ships belonging to Cyrus. These had formed Tamos's blockading squadron at Miletus, when that city sided with Tissaphernes; he had also used them in other military services rendered to Cyrus in his operations against that satrap. There was a third officer on board the fleet, the Lacedaemonian Cheirisophus, who had been sent for by Cyrus, and had brought with him seven hundred hoplites, over whom he was to act as general in the service of Cyrus.
The fleet lay at anchor opposite Cyrus's tent. Here too another reinforcement presented itself. This was a body of four hundred hoplites, Hellenic mercenaries in the service of Abrocomas, who 3 deserted him for Cyrus, and joined in the campaign against the king. From Issi, he marched a single stage--five parasangs--to the gates of Cilicia and Syria. This was a double fortress: the inner and nearer one, which protects Cilicia, was held by Syennesis and a garrison of Cilicians; the outer and further one, protecting Syria, was reported to be garrisoned by a body of the king's troops.
Through the gap between the two fortresses flows a river named the Carsus, which is a hundred feet broad, and the whole space between was scarcely more than six hundred yards. To force a passage here would be impossible, so narrow was the pass itself, with the fortification walls stretching down to the sea, and precipitous rocks above; while both fortresses were furnished with gates. It was the existence of this pass which had induced Cyrus to send for the fleet, so as to enable him to lead a body of hoplites inside and outside the gates; and so to force a passage through the enemy, if he were guarding the Syrian gate, as he fully expected to find Abrocomas doing with a large army.
This, however, Abrocomas had not done; but as soon as he learnt that Cyrus was in Cilicia, he had turned round and made his exit from Phoenicia, to join the king with an army amounting, as report said, to three hundred thousand men. From this point Cyrus pursued his march, through Syria a single stage--five parasangs--to Myriandus, a city inhabited by Phoenicians, on the sea-coast. This was a commercial port, and numerous merchant vessels were riding at anchor in the harbour. Here they halted seven days, and here Xenias the Arcadian general, and Pasion the Megarian got on board a trader, and having stowed away their most valuable effects, set sail for home; most people explained the act as the outcome of a fit of jealousy, because Cyrus had allowed Clearchus to retain their men, who had deserted to him, in hopes of returning to Hellas instead of marching against the king; when the two had so vanished, a rumour spread that Cyrus was after them with some ships of war, and some hoped the cowards might be caught, others pitied them, if that should be their fate.
But Cyrus summoned the generals and addressed them: "Xenias and 8 Pasion," he said, "have taken leave of us; but they need not flatter themselves that in so doing they have stolen into hiding.
I know where they are gone; nor will they owe their escape to speed; I have men-of-war to capture their craft, if I like. But heaven help me! Not so! And yet I have their children and wives safe under lock and key in Tralles; but they shall not be deprived even of these. They shall receive them back in return for their former goodness to me. After this Cyrus marched onwards four stages--twenty parasangs--to the river Chalus. That river is a hundred feet broad, and is stocked with tame fish which the Syrians regard as gods, and will not suffer to be injured--and so too the pigeons of the place.
The villages in which they encamped belonged to Parysatis, as part of her girdle money. From this point he marched on five stages--thirty parasangs--to the sources of the river Dardas, which is a hundred feet broad. Here stood the palace of Belesys, the ruler of Syria, with its park--which was a very large and beautiful one, and full of the products of all the seasons in their course.
But Cyrus cut down the park and burnt the palace. Thence he marched on three stages--fifteen parasangs--to the river Euphrates, which is nearly half a mile broad. A large and 11 flourishing city, named Thapsacus, stands on its banks. Here they halted five days, and here Cyrus sent for the generals of the Hellenes, and told them that the advance was now to be upon Babylon, against the great king; he bade them communicate this information to the soldiers and persuade them to follow.
The generals called an assembly, and announced the news to the soldiers. The latter were indignant and angry with the generals, accusing them of having kept secret what they had long known; and refused to go, unless such a bribe of money were given them as had been given to their predecessors, when they went up with Cyrus to the court of his father, not as now to fight a battle, but on a peaceful errand--the visit of a son to his father by invitation.
The demand was reported to Cyrus by the generals, and he undertook to give each man five silver minae as soon as Babylon was reached, and their pay in full, until he had safely conveyed them back to Ionia again. In this manner the Hellenic force were persuaded--that is to say, the majority of them.
Menon, indeed, before it was clear what the rest of the soldiers would do--whether, in fact they would follow Cyrus or not--collected his own troops apart and made them the following speech; "Men," he said, "if you will listen to me, there is a method by which, without risk or toil, you may win the special favour of Cyrus beyond the rest of the soldiers.
You ask what it is I would have you to do? I will tell you. Cyrus at this instant is begging the Hellenes to follow him to attack the king. I say then: Cross the Euphrates at once, before it is clear what answer the rest will make; if they vote in favour of following, you will get the credit of having set the example, and Cyrus will be grateful to you.
He will look upon you as being the heartiest in his cause; he will repay, as of all others he best knows how; while, if the rest vote against crossing, we shall go back again; but as the sole adherents, whose fidelity he can altogether trust, it is you whom Cyrus will turn to account, as commandants of garrisons or captains of companies. You need only ask him for whatever you want, and you will get it from him, as being the friends of Cyrus. Olympiodorus and the Scholiast both think that Plato here refers to Xenophon and this passage of the "Anabasis.
The men heard and obeyed, and before the rest had given their answer, they were already across. But when Cyrus perceived that Menon's troops 16 had crossed, he was well pleased, and he sent Glus to the division in question, with this message: "Soldiers, accept my thanks at present; eventually you shall thank me.
I will see to that, or my name is not Cyrus. But to Menon, it was said, he sent gifts with lordly liberality.
This done, Cyrus proceeded to cross; and in his wake followed the rest of the armament to a man. As they forded, never a man was wetted above the chest: nor ever until this moment, said the men of Thapascus, had the river been so crossed on foot, boats had always been required; but these, at the present time, Abrocomas, in his desire to hinder Cyrus from crossing, had been at pains to burn. Thus the passage was looked upon as a thing miraculous; the river had manifestly retired before the face of Cyrus, like a courtier bowing to his future king.
From this place he continued his march through Syria nine stages--fifty parasangs--and they reached the river Araxes. Here were several villages full of corn and wine; in which they halted three days, and provisioned the army. Thence he marched on through Arabia, keeping the Euphrates on the 1 right, five desert stages--thirty-five parasangs.
In this region the ground was one long level plain, stretching far and wide like the sea, full of absinth; whilst all the other vegetation, whether wood or reed, was sweet scented like spice or sweet herb; there were no trees; but there was wild game of all kinds--wild asses in greatest abundance, with plenty of ostriches; besides these, there were bustards and antelopes.
These creatures were occasionally chased by the cavalry. The asses, when pursued, would run forward a space, and then stand still--their pace being much swifter than that of horses; and as soon as the horses came close, they went through the same performance. The only way to catch them was for the riders to post themselves at intervals, and to hunt them in relays, as it were. The flesh of those they captured was not unlike venison, only more tender. No one was lucky enough to capture an ostrich. Some of the troopers did give chase, but it had soon to be abandoned; for the bird, in its effort to escape, speedily put a long interval between itself and its 3 pursuers; plying its legs at full speed, and using its wings the while like a sail.
The bustards were not so hard to catch when started suddenly; for they only take short flights, like partridges, and are soon tired. Their flesh is delicious. As the army wended its way through this region, they reached the river Mascas, which is one hundred feet in breadth. Here stood a big deserted city called Corsote, almost literally environed by the stream, which flows round it in a circle. Here they halted three days and provisioned themselves. Thence they continued their march thirteen desert stages--ninety parasangs--with the Euphrates still on their right, until they reached the Gates.
On these marches several of the baggage animals perished of hunger, for there was neither grass nor green herb, or tree of any sort; but the country throughout was barren. The inhabitants make their living by quarrying millstones on the river banks, which they work up and take to Babylon and sell, purchasing corn in exchange for their goods. Corn failed the army, and was not to be got for money, except in the Lydian market open in Cyrus's Asiatic army; where a kapithe of wheat or barley cost four shekels; the shekel being equal to seven and a half Attic obols, whilst the kapithe is the equivalent of two Attic choeneces, dry measure, so that the soldiers subsisted on meat alone for the whole period.
Some of the stages were very long, whenever they had to push on to find water or fodder; and once they found themselves involved in a narrow way, where the deep clay presented an obstacle to the progress of the wagons. Cyrus, with the nobles about him, halted to superintend the operation, and ordered Glus and Pigres to take a body of barbarians and to help in extricating the wagons.
As they seemed to be slow about the business, he turned round angrily to the Persian nobles and bade them lend a hand to force the wagons out. Then, if ever, what goes to constitute one branch of good discipline, was to be witnessed. Each of those addressed, just where he chanced to be 8 standing, threw off his purple cloak, and flung himself into the work with as much eagerness as if it had been a charge for victory. Down a steep hill side they flew, with their costly tunics and embroidered trousers--some with the circlets round their necks, and bracelets on their arms--in an instant, they had sprung into the miry clay, and in less time than one could have conceived, they had landed the wagons safe on terra firma.
It was the minimum allowance of corn for a man, say a slave, per diem. The Spartan was allowed at the public table 2 choenices a day. Altogether it was plain that Cyrus was bent on pressing on the march, and averse to stoppages, except where he halted for the sake of provisioning or some other necessary object; being convinced that the more rapidly he advanced, the less prepared for battle would he find the king; while the slower his own progress, the larger would be the hostile army which he would find collected.
Indeed, the attentive observer could see, at a glance, that if the king's empire was strong in its extent of territory and the number of inhabitants, that strength is compensated by an inherent weakness, dependent upon the length of roads and the inevitable dispersion of defensive forces, where an invader insists upon pressing home the war by forced marches. On the opposite side of the Euphrates to the point reached on one of these desert stages, was a large and flourishing city named Charmande. From this town the soldiers made purchases of provisions, crossing the river on rafts, in the following fashion: They took the skins which they used as tent coverings, and filled them with light grass; they then compressed and stitched them tightly together by the ends, so that the water might not touch the hay.
On these they crossed and got provisions: wine made from the date-nut, and millet or panic-corn, the common staple of the country. Some dispute or other here occurred between the soldiers of Menon and Clearchus, in which Clearchus sentenced one of Menon's men, as the delinquent, and had him flogged. The man went back to his own division and told them. Hearing what had been done to their comrade, his fellows fretted and fumed, and were highly incensed against Clearchus.
The same day Clearchus visited the passage of the river, and after inspecting the market there, was returning with a few followers, on horseback, to his tent, and had to 12 pass through Menon's quarters. Cyrus had not yet come up, but was riding up in the same direction. One of Menon's men, who was splitting wood, caught sight of Clearchus as he rode past, and aimed a blow at him with his axe.
The aim took no effect; when another hurled a stone at him, and a third, and then several, with shouts and hisses. Clearchus made a rapid retreat to his own troops, and at once ordered them to get under arms. He bade his hoplites remain in position with their shields resting against their knees, while he, at the head of his Thracians and horsemen, of which he had more than forty in his army--Thracians for the most part--advanced against Menon's soldiers, so that the latter, with Menon himself, were panic-stricken, and ran to seize their arms; some even stood riveted to the spot, in perplexity at the occurrence.
Just then Proxenus came up from behind, as chance would have it, with his division of hoplites, and without a moment's hesitation marched into the open space between the rival parties, and grounded arms; then he fell to begging Clearchus to desist. The latter was not too well pleased to hear his trouble mildly spoken of, when he had barely escaped being stoned to death; and he bade Proxenus retire and leave the intervening space open.
At this juncture Cyrus arrived and inquired what was happening. There was no time for hesitation. With his javelins firmly grasped in his hands he galloped up--escorted by some of his faithful bodyguard, who were present--and was soon in the midst, exclaiming: "Clearchus, Proxenus, and you other Hellenes yonder, you know not what you do. As surely as you come to blows with one another, our fate is sealed--this very day I shall be cut to pieces, and so will you: your turn will follow close on mine. Let our fortunes once take an evil turn, and these barbarians whom you see around will be worse foes to us than those who are at present serving the king.
Both parties paused from battle, and retired to their quarters: order reigned. As they advanced from this point opposite Charmande , they came upon 1 the hoof-prints and dung of horses at frequent intervals. It looked like the trail of some two thousand horses. Keeping ahead of the army, these fellows burnt up the grass and everything else that was good for use. Now there was a Persian, named Orontas; he was closely related to the king by birth: and in matters pertaining to war reckoned among the best of Persian warriors.
Having formerly been at war with Cyrus, and afterwards reconciled to him, he now made a conspiracy to destroy him. The proposal seemed plausible to Cyrus, who accordingly authorised Orontas to take a detachment from each of the generals, and be gone. He, thinking that he had got his horsemen ready to his hand, wrote a letter to the king, announcing that he would ere long join him with as many troopers as he could bring; he bade him, at the same time, instruct the royal cavalry to welcome him as a friend.
The letter further contained certain reminders of his former friendship and fidelity. This despatch he delivered into the hands of one who was a trusty messenger, as he thought; but the bearer took and gave it to Cyrus. Cyrus read it. Orontas was arrested. Then Cyrus summoned to his tent seven of the noblest Persians among his personal attendants, and sent orders to the Hellenic generals to bring up a body of hoplites. These troops were to take up a position round his tent.
This the generals did; bringing up about three thousand hoplites. Clearchus was also invited inside, to assist at the court-martial; a compliment due to the position he held among the other generals, in the opinion not only of Cyrus, but also of the rest of the court. When he came out, he reported the circumstances of the trial as to which, indeed, there was no mystery to his friends.
He said that Cyrus opened the inquiry with these words: "I have invited you hither, my friends, that I may take advice with you, and carry out whatever, in the sight of God and man, it is right for me to do, as concerning the man before you, Orontas. The 6 prisoner was, in the first instance, given to me by my father, to be my faithful subject. In the next place, acting, to use his own words, under the orders of my brother, and having hold of the acropolis of Sardis, he went to war with me. I met war with war, and forced him to think it more prudent to desist from war with me: whereupon we shook hands, exchanging solemn pledges.
After that," and at this point Cyrus turned to Orontas, and addressed him personally--"after that, did I do you any wrong? Are these things so? Then Cyrus put one more question: "But the day may come, may it not, when you will once again be hostile to my brother, and a faithful friend to myself? At this point Cyrus turned to those who were present and said: "Such has been the conduct of the prisoner in the past: such is his language now. I now call upon you, and you first, Clearchus, to declare your opinion--what think you?
After they had conducted him to the tent of Artapates, the trustiest of Cyrus's wand-bearers, none set eyes upon him ever again, alive or dead. No one, of his own knowledge, could declare the manner of his death; though some conjectured one thing and some another. No tomb to mark his resting-place, either then or since, was ever seen. From this place Cyrus marched through Babylonia three stages--twelve 1 parasangs. Now, on the third stage, about midnight, Cyrus held a review of the Hellenes and Asiatics in the plain, expecting that the king would arrive the following day with his army to offer battle.
He gave orders to Clearchus to take command of the right wing, and to Menon the Thessalian of the left, while he himself undertook to the disposition of his own forces in person. After the review, with the first approach of day, deserters from the great king arrived, bringing Cyrus information about the royal army. Then Cyrus summoned the generals and captains of the Hellenes, and held a council of war to arrange the plan of battle.
He took this opportunity also to address the following words of compliment and encouragement to the meeting: "Men of Hellas," he said, "it is certainly not from dearth of barbarians to fight my battles that I put myself at your head as my allies; but because I hold you to be better and stronger than many barbarians.
That is why I took you. See then that you prove yourselves to be men worthy of the liberty which you possess, and which I envy you. Liberty--it is a thing which, be well assured, I would choose in preference to all my other possessions, multiplied many times. But I would like you to know into what sort of struggle you are going: learn its nature from one who knows. Their numbers are great, and they come on with much noise; but if you can hold out against these two things, I confess I am ashamed to think, what a sorry set of folk you will 4 find the inhabitants of this land to be.